III B Society
To describe man,
You do not study
His world, but his mind.
To describe society,
You study its discussions
Of public issues.
Udo Frentzen 2015/21
1 ~ PDF ~ ~ Home ~
III B 1 Remarks
III B 2 Standards
III B 3 Constitution
3c) Man - man relations
3d) Originator - Recipient
III B 4 Construction
4c) Social force
4e) Public discussion
4f) Problem solving
4g) Conflict solving
III B 5 Essentials
5a) Physiological base
5e) Service society
III B 6 Schools of social thought
6c) Economic marks
6d) Social marks
III B 7 Scientific-technological development
7e) Institutional efforts
7f) Co-determining efforts
7i) Developmental marks
III B 8 Inhibiting factors
8b) Intentional barriers
III B 9 Summary
9a) Social forces
9d) Public accusations
III B 1 Remarks
Intent of the essay is to take a stock check of society at the beginning of the 21st century.
Observer's position is questioning, reflective, defensive, hopeful, literary participation.
Definition of truth for the essay is: Have all essential parts of a durable society been considered?
All Bible quotations are out of Today’s New International Version (TNIV)
AAS – Acta Apostolicae Sedis (eng)
Man stands at the center of his forces, their standards, generation, application and responsibility.
His convictions direct his intentions, conceptions, decisions and expressions.
They have generated all man made phenomena, for which he signs responsible and not society at large.
Today, the predominant social mark, political-scientific-technological-industrial-social exploitation of hu-
man and natural resources, can be symbolically represented as a techno-garden, where people feed on
a poisoned apple a day, but are not allowed to eat the fruits of other trees: maturity, reason and faith.
Approach is from an understanding of man as its first component.
1a1) Society is an object of human cognition.
1a2) A singular social fact as objective reality is fully depictable.
1a3) Society at large is not fully depictable for its multifariousness, complexity and open-endedness.
1a4) A model of its components cannot be scaled up or down over an extended length of time.
1a5) It is described within the frame of 2 cuts in time taken around a short representative period, where
its components remain in detail retraceable, depictable, relatable and predictable.
Society, as a man made object, exists out of components and not as a single, defined, finished object.
They comprise the natural constitution, construction and essentials, being independent, intermeshing
and build on each other to provide basic services.
1b1) Natural constitution
Nature given constitution comprises man, population and man - man relations, especially originator – re-
Society is constructed, transformed and destructed by man, groups, social forces, political-social forces,
public discussions, problem solving, conflict solving, supervision, ethics and defence.
Essentials of life and a durable society are a physiological base, a viable economy, freedom, conviction
and basic services. They empower a society to fend off over time destruction from outer and inner forces.
III B 2 Standards
Standards entail mostly definition, purpose, scope, generation, classification, scale and application.
Man’s standard, a self-set and self-interpreting value, is human dignity.
2b1) Intent is to protect man, society and environment that human actions in freedom of choice with posi-
tive and negative consequences do not to fall back on themselves, but promote objective benefits.
2b2) Scaled up intent is to further telos of mind with sound mental concepts in ethical freedom.
They apply to all subjective-objective, individual-collective, spiritual-human-natural objects in space-time.
There is not one object with at least one spiritual and human and natural aspect.
Human dignity and deduced values are generated by designation of goods as being worth of protection.
2e1) Spiritual values protect divine gifts to man.
2e2) Existential values protect basic human rights to life.
2e3) Humanitarian values protect basic personal rights to growth.
2e4) Environmental values protect basic rights of nature.
2e5) Cosmic values contribute to life, truth, unity and environment for the long term future of man.
2e6) Universal values apply to all objects on the globe in past, present and future.
2e7) Framework values combine all proper values of a social fabric.
2e8) Object values combine all proper values of a single object.
Values are ordered hierarchically according to significance and range of validity and connected by an un-
broken interlinked tree structure. There are no values, which cannot be deduced from human dignity.
2f1) Primary values
f1,1) Primary spiritual, existential, humanitarian and universal value is love, being kind, patient and
protecting. It abhors violence. It extends to the low (Mat 25,40), lost (Luk 15,4) and hostile (Mat 5,43).
It extends equally to all disregarding origin, race, color, gender, age, position, wealth, culture and faith.
f1,2) Primary to fourth values in a constitutional framework are often codified as basic human rights.
f1,3) Primary universal natural value is integrity of nature.
2f2) Secondary spiritual, humanitarian, universal and natural value is truth. It abhors deception.
It extends to all objects in reach of self-awareness, curiosity, imagination and ambition.
f2,1) Truth is found by cognition, first by an intruding, observing, questioning, investigating search, ex-
hausting available means to generate knowledge.
f2,2) Investigating an object, truth is in respect to God a comprehensive analysis towards innocence,
in respect to man and nature a comprehensive analysis in spirit of man and in integrity of nature.
Their research adding each other, they stand on a linked, equal, balanced and cooperating level.
f2,3) Truth in its narrow context means congruence of an objective description with its object in one to
one accuracy from property to term to sign to communication to documentation.
f2,4) Truth in its wider context means an accurate, complete, transparent. objective description of an
object within the dimensions of man's radius of action and responsibilities.
f2,5) Truth in its cosmic context means an accurate, scaled up, objective description of an object within
the dimensions of nature and the infinite.
f2,6) Truth in a social framework means freedom of knowledge from generation to application.
2f3) Tertiary, existential, humanitarian, universal and primary social value is unity of mankind.
It abhors segregation. It is based on equity and justice with the rule of law.
2f4) Fourth humanitarian and universal values are freedoms, emancipation and common welfare.
2f5) Professional standards are guidelines of state of the art field knowledge and praxis.
2f6) Item specific standards are benchmarks of properties and performance.
2g) Realization is by design, feedback, public discussion, regulation, supervision and litigation.
Design entails proper formulation, combination and conflict solving of standards.
III B 3 Constitution
Society naturally constitutes itself out of man, a population and man-man relations.
Man's natural constitution is described in the essay III A Man 3.
It includes physical growth, needs and drives, motivations, the senses, memory, emotions, psychic activi-
ties, mental activities and anthropological characteristics.
A population is a group of people with a shared characteristic within the world population as present man-
kind. It is empirically, statistically observable, describable, measurable and analysable.
3b1) Ethnic groups can have in common eg territory, ecology, ancestry, gene pool, origin myth, history,
cuisine, language, culture, rituals and religion.
3b2) Self-organizing groups can have in common eg
b2,1) Situation eg Roped party
b2,2) Territory eg Residency in a region
b2,3) Community eg Tribe or city
b2,4) Association eg Special interest
b2,5) Corporation eg Membership
b2,6) History eg Political-social experience
b2,7) Legal status eg Citizenship
b2,8) Political organization eg State
b2,9) Psychological factor eg Myth
3b3) Population formation
b3,1) Forces of generation are eg reproduction, adoption, immigration, asylum, political-social growth
programs, integration, naturalization, association, merger, unification and territorial gain.
b3,2) Forces of extinction are eg sterility, abortion, birth control, famine, epidemic, genetic aberration,
emigration, disenfranchisement, expulsion, territorial loss, accident, crime and combat casualty.
b3,3) Its status is measured by eg counts, surveys and their analysing statistics.
b3,4) Rates of change are measured of eg births, deaths, immigration, emigration and relocation.
b3,5) Trends are measured as eg boom, growth, equilibrium, variation, aberration, shift and decline.
b3,6) Events are recorded as eg turning points, incisions and breaks.
3b4) Population structures
b4,1) Demographic are eg birth, origin, age, gender, marriage status, children, family size, divorce, oc-
cupation, residency, military service, retirement, death, population size, density and their changes.
b4,2) Geographic are eg region, terrain, territorial shape and their cohesion.
b4,3) Biologic are eg weight, height, color, nutrition, health, fitness, fertility, reproductive span, dis-
eases, disabilities, mortality, causes of death, life expectancy, genotype and phenotype.
b4,4) Environmental are eg food, drink, clothing, housing, education, health care and human rights.
b4,5) Economic are eg income, savings, depts, real estate, net worth, employment, job changes, pro-
ductivity, living standard, insurances, consumption, investments, subsidies, taxes, NDP and GDP.
b4,6) Ecologic are eg state of natural resources, climate, air, water, soil, flora and fauna.
b4,7) Cultural are eg community, language, education, religion, solidarity, individuality and lifestyle.
b4,8) Political are eg military-legal-technological-social-media character and infra-structure with eg
class formation, majority-minority status, rooms of tolerance, participation, mobility and integration.
b4,9) Foreign exchanges are on the micro-level eg bilingualism, international communication, foreign
jobs, travel and on the macro-level eg international trade, finance, diplomacy.
3b5) Inhibiting factors
Populations are immediately exposed to all hostile factors of life.
They are especially vulnerable to natural catastrophes and misuses of power.
b5,1) Natural catastrophes can be eg famine, epidemic and incision into the natural environment.
b5,2) Misuses of power can be eg formation control like strangulation, resettlement and expulsion,
transformation into a cyborg - chimera with programmable augmented capabilities, replacement by eg
robotized androids, decimation by eg democide and elimination by eg genocide.
3c) Man - man relations
A relation connects, constructs and carries an expression with its factors from an originator along an inter-
acting path to a recipient. The link is as firm and fragile as all of the human constitution.
3c1) Originator can be any natural, legal and virtual person, group of persons and interacting device, also
a plant or animal.
3c2) Recipient can be an object of any class.
3c3) Intentions range from well wishes to crime.
3c4) Content can be an object of any class.
Lasting human relations require equitability and maintenance.
3c5) Functions are eg to
c5,1) Connect subjects and objects.
c5,2) Transmit people, information, goods and money.
c5,3) Transmit spiritual, human and physical forces.
c5,4) Construct bondage qualities.
3c6) Base patterns are
c6,1) Source in time and space: base point(s) and area(s).
c6,2) Lines in time: singular, sequential and parallel.
c6,3) Lines in space: straight, curve, fork, star, loop, intersection and crossover.
c6,4) Directions in space: unidirectional, reciprocal and multidirectional.
c6,5) Connections in space: direct, over station(s) and loop(s).
c6,6) End points in time and space: closed, fading out, dissipating and open ended.
3c7) A sociogram, an out or in directed wire diagram with sources, lines and end points, graphically re-
presents eg persons, groups, objects, relations, activities, magnitudes and conditions.
c7,1) In time: a flow chart, a row of interactions, describes the sequential relations within a group.
It contains with its base pattern eg tasks, points of actions, speeds, durations and interruptions.
c7,2) In space: a tree chart, an arrangement of interactions, describes the structural relations within a
group. It contains with its base pattern eg centers, clusters, peripheries, appendices, redundancies, ob-
stacles, breaks to trace eg hierarchies, networks, outposts and points of action like initiation, operation,
decision, event, move, reception, feedback, evaluation and termination.
c7,3) Example of a tree chart
Persons A, B, C, ... Natural objects On1, On2, On3, …. Man made objects Om1, Om2, Om3, ….
Relations R1, R2, R3, .… Barriers b1, b2, b3, .… Points of flow change p1, p2, p3, ….
Characteristics of man - man relations comprise the innumerable aspects of man and environments eg
essential-minor, central-peripheral, positive-negative, active-passive, equitable-inequitable, free-coerced,
new-old, original-copied, planned-circumstantial, related-unrelated, expected-unexpected, singular-re-
peated, simultaneous-sequential, personal-impersonal, reliable-unreliable, stable-labile, indispensable-
substitutable, routine-non-routine, short-long term and range, sound-degenerate, creative-imitative, vivid-
in ruins, unique-common, example setting-uninspiring, predictable-unpredictable, calculable-incalculable,
sustainable-unsustainable, environmentally compatible-incompatible, profit-non profit, functional-defect,
efficient-wasteful, structured-amorphous, formal-informal, verbal-written, actual-potential, factual-sym-
bolic, manifest-latent, simple-complex, single-multi-channel, horizontal-vertical, low-high density, contin-
uous-intermittent, regenerating-dying out, flexible-rigid, dynamic-ossified, mobile-stationary, calm-ex-
cited, falling short-excessive, sought for-intruded upon, observed-unobserved, supervised-independent,
plain-encoded, disguised-transparent, with-without consequences.
3c9) Inhibiting factors at the base level are restrictions of freedoms of eg movement, speech, flow of infor-
mation/goods, assembly, profession, culture and religion.
Relations are extremely sensitive indicators, detecting minor disparities in social weights between the eg
powerful-less and rich-poor, also minor claims to dominance in etiquette, worldview, culture and religion.
3d) Originator - Recipient
Basic function of a relation is to transmit information and goods from an originator to a recipient.
Originator is mostly a natural or legal person, utilizing a controlled force, mechanism, path and medium
of transmission for delivery.
d2,1) Raw data are signs on a substrate.
d2,2) They become information by coding, syntax, semantics and pragmatics.
d2,3) A unit of information conveys a fixed yes/no statement as a measurable quality and quantity.
It represents a specific property of an object of any class.
It can be handled by mechanical, chemical, bio-chemical and electronical data processing.
d2,4) They become a message, conveying a meaning within context of a competent language.
d2,5) They requires the standards of truth in its narrow, wider and cosmic context.
Goods can be natural materials, processed half-finished to finished goods and services.
d4,1) Transmission is by directed or non-directed conveyance, conduction, convection and radiation.
d4,2) Sensory signals run from source to encoder, emitter, channel, receiver, decoder to recipient.
d4,3) Forces of transmission, utilized by humans, animals, technical devices are eg bio-mechanical,
gravitational, mechanical, electro-magnetic, optical, chemical, bio-chemical, biological and genetic.
d4,4) Encoding ranges from plain-encrypted artefact, spoken word, written text to technological signal.
d4,5) Channels are eg an environmental medium, tube, cable and mechanical carrier.
d4,6) Big Data volumes, velocities and varieties are handled by very high capacity computers.
d4,7) Losses can be by friction, absorption, reflection, dispersion, dissipation, leakage, interference.
d4,8) Performance measures are eg universality, practicality, flexibility, reliability, consistency, re-
quired infrastructure, energy consumption, volume, speed, operating-obstacle safety and costs.
d5,1) Medium of transmission is a physical object, a naturally present substance or a man made infra-
structure, allowing transmission of data, energy, matter from a sender over a distance to a receiver, eg
d5,1,1) Vacuum or open-enclosed, uniform-composite solid, liquid, gas and plasma.
d5,1,2) A bound, stationary device like a conveying belt, cable, signal emitter or gun.
d5,1,3) An independently moving carrier like an animal, man, truck, train, plane or rocket.
d5,2) Surroundings of a carrier can be vacuum, a material in any state and a force of any kind with
specific conditions of eg light, wind, current, temperature, pressure, shear, height difference, barrier.
d5,3) Performance measures are eg universality, speed, efficiency, reliability and costs.
Recipient is addressee of the originator, who can take identical, opposite and interchanging roles.
d6,1) Recipient can be any object, a spiritual, natural, social, human and man made one.
d6,2) A human recipient can be eg intended addressee, interested party, bystander, intervener, reflec-
tive non-participating observer, the population at large, retrospective researcher and interpreter.
d6,3) First task of a recipient is cognition to decipher the originator's communication, action and inten-
tion within the interactive situation, context and environment.
d6,4) Approach ranges from anticipation to biased expectation to traumatized walling off.
d6,5) Main approach is to arrive at an objective description, interpretation and evaluation.
d6,6) In the response, the recipient acts as an originator.
d6,7) Desired result is a sound design of response comparable to a sound design of expression.
d6,8) A response can propagate by eg word of mouth, private/public media and teaching.
Impact history describes dia- and synchronic lines from an originator to a number of third parties.
d6,9) Situations can be eg relaxed or stressed, friendly or treacherous, tête-à-tête or in a crowd, off
or online, near or far, private or public, informal or formal, with or without background knowledge.
d6,10) Environments can be eg stimulus, reward, expectation, indifference, punishment, coercion.
d6,11) Evaluation is by the standards of communication and action.
III B 4 Construction
Society is constructed out of man made activities, out of man, group, social force, political-social power,
public discussion, problem solving, conflict solving, supervision, ethics, defence and essentials.
Basic human-social driving forces are
◦ Self-organizations for complex structures and processes.
◦ Self-preservation for mechanisms of survival and regeneration.
◦ Self-determination for strategic-tactical lines of goal attainment.
◦ Self-realization into the micro, meso and macro dimensions.
◦ Self-presentation for demonstration of eg identity, goals and principles.
Mental tools of construction are mainly intentions, conceptions, experience, cognition, comprehension
Goal of construction is a social fabric with universal standards, with constitutional, organizational, prob-
lem – conflict solving and supervisory institutions and with the essentials of a physiological base, econo-
my, freedom, conviction and basic services.
Pragmatically society provides services to man, his constitution, construction, expansion, essentials and
the inexhaustible spectrum of human thought and expression to augments his capabilities.
Symbolically, society opens a wide landscape of fertile soils for human endeavours.
Society is not a real or legal person, it does not plan, communicate, act or reflect in self-understanding.
Man signs responsible for his actions.
Fended off are dysfunctions because of neglect, excesses because of inequity, misdevelopments be-
cause of large scale run-aways and inhibiting factors because of exploitation with violence.
4a) Man's construction is described in the essay III A Man 4.
It includes construction by intention, conception, mental operations, question, search, experience, cogni-
tion, comprehension, reflection, design of expression, expressions, communication, action, administra-
tive organization and technical device.
Originator is mostly a natural or legal person or community of purpose as eg 1st originator, often develop-
ing leadership, co-originator, party member, doer, mover, supporter, participant, helper, assenter, lobby-
ist, éminence grise, expert, counsellor, sponsor, investor, public relations worker, reporter, sympathizer,
flatterer, profiteer, propagandist and sociological intervener.
4b2) Growth processes
Social growth processes reflect the characteristics of human relations and predetermine the style and
atmosphere of the ensuing groups, eg productive-destructive, narrow-broad, urgent-visionary, ostenta-
tious-inconspicuous, spontaneous-preplanned, impulsive-hesitant, publicly discussed-proprietary.
b2,1) Base processes run from goal definition to choice of means to goal attainment and are mostly
Pre-formation, initiation, propagation and termination
b2,1,1) Pre-forming discussions raise a social issue within its environmental opportunities and con-
straints, leading as teleological motor to a decision to define a goal and to form a motivated, compe-
tent team, able to satisfy expectations.
b2,1,2) Initiation, mostly group centered decision making, entails eg storming, forming, topic focus,
direction, goal definition, norming, choice of place and time, pooling of human, material, financial re-
sources, organizational stratification with structures, processes, functions, tasks and working units.
Members can develop trust, cohesion and a self-aware collective identity by instrumental, utile, psy-
chological, social and behavioral bonds.
b2,1,3) Propagation, mostly function centered recruitment, institutionalization, continuation and con-
centration, entails eg strategies and tactics, implementation of projects, campaigns by word of
mouth, public relations, public discussions with feedback evaluation, gaining public impact, solving
of legal, logistical, technical aspects, uncertainties, tensions, disagreements and adjustments to
b2,1,4) Termination can be because of eg project completion, longer disruption or failure, lack of will
or resources, diffusion, change of environmental conditions and in-external conflicts.
b2,2) Basic mechanisms are association, addition, multiplication, dissociation, resignment, break up.
b2,3) Modi range from chaotic mass behavior to an organized developing campaign.
b2,4) Paths can be con-discontinuous, linear-exponential, in steps, stages, phases, cycles, thrusts,
b2,5) Base states are absent, potential, latent, stand by, present and active.
b2,6) Base levels are micro, meso and macro nationally and internationally.
b2,7) Dynamics, positive-negative, evolve by in-external impulses with eg rising-sinking rewards, multi-
plication-dissolution of membership, addition-abandonment of tasks and cross level influences.
4b3) Semi group
Semi-groups develop in a stratified population and share a typical common characteristic like eg power-
full-powerless, rich-poor, independent-dependent, men-women, young-old, egoistic-altruistic, voters-non-
voters, students-workers, city-suburb dwellers, fair housing-slum dwellers, drinkers-teetotalers.
4b4) Small group
A small group shares a specific, typical relation and is represented by eg a head or spokesman.
b4,1) They can be eg a team, club, party, coterie, cycle, clique, band, gang, mop, horde, clan, cadre,
squad, cohort, connection, collective, faction, splinter group, out group, counter-group, marginal group,
cult, sect, staff, committee, panel, firm, company, corporation, co-operative, institute, agency, founda-
tion, syndicate, trust and elite with eg friends, fans, supporters.
b4,2) They can be classified as primary-intimacy, secondary-task and tertiary-situational groups.
b4,3) They can be further classified as eg public-private, profit-non-profit, me too-innovative, cohe-
sive-splintered, continuously-intermittently active.
A loose to organized association shares mostly a comparable activity and style of operation and is re-
presented by eg a chairman of the board, union leader or presiding master.
They can be eg a liaison, league, union, class, caste, discipline, professional field and secret society
with advisors, agents, experts, lobbyists, followers, adherers, clientele and support groups.
4b6) Larger social formation
A larger social formation serves a single purpose like an interest formation up to a multitude of spiritual,
human and material functions like a state and is represented by eg a president, king or bishop.
b6,1) They can be eg associations like a class, elite, political party, partnership, alliance, federation,
network, colony, church, state, commonwealth, nation, block of satellite states and system.
b6,2) Systems are rationalized, function oriented rooms of operation. They
b6,2,1) Program factors of goal attainment like human, scientific, financial, natural resources.
b6,2,2) Codetermine political-legal-social-frameworks, character and atmosphere.
4b7) Social cohesion is desired by all social formations as eg solidarity, trust, integration and mobility
within the population with strangers-known people, lower-higher echelons, cross-social groups, inter-
dependent parties, present-future generations. Indispensable for a well functioning democracy, econo-
my and civic society, it is often promoted by institutions, frameworks and the social character.
4b8) Strength can be measured against overall national activities by eg significance of issue, mix of
products and services, employees, radius and rights of action, gross sales, market share, quotes in the
private, public and foreign sectors, public presence and recognition, image and resources.
4b9) Acceptance can be measured by eg growth rate, number of complains and history of conflicts.
4c) Social force
A social force is a larger motivational, cause setting political-social engine to realize a social issue with a
large scale effect in weight, number, time or place.
It grows out of human needs and drives. It demands ever new stimulation, satisfaction and expansion,
transgressing with accumulated resources, administrative-technological tools, research and develop-
ment, deception and violence the boundaries of man, society, nature and sound theology.
It grows from the individual, subjective onto the collective, objective level.
It dorms out of an individual design of expression with a line of mental processing and a line of mental-
It forms out groups, associations and larger social formations.
It augments human capabilities with an administrative organization, with a technical devices and a higher
order political-social construction to elevate human expressions onto a larger scale.
It is identified first by its name, representative, constitution, political-social philosophy, goal, means, re-
sources, interrelations, environments, changes and gains.
It has established by construction, restraint and destruction all man made phenomena.
It is able to advance, preserve and destroy man, society and nature.
Its major characteristic is variety.
Any object, a hidden drive or open idea, can become a social issue.
It touches all subjective and objective phenomena, their forces, characteristics, relations and realities.
It touches all class relations: man – man, man – society, man – society – nature, man – society – God. It is
therefore subject to their class-boundaries.
It develops for each relating object an addressable conception within an overall world view. It is therefore
subject to the construction rules of sound mental products.
Its intentional and conceptual trains can start at any station and run into any direction over any number of
The goal defines the purpose of the social force.
c1,1) Intentions range from charity to non-profit to egocentricity.
c1,2) Objects range from relief effort to the professional fields to utopian vision.
c1,3) The goal represents the responsible personnel with function, operations and code of ethics.
c1,4) It is documented in a constitution with name, logo, address and self-presentation.
c1,5) It reflects public image, record and acceptance.
The record tracks eg management activities, successes, breakpoints and failures.
c1,6) Success radiates leadership and competence.
c1,7) Failures lead to eg course correction, reorganization, operational revision and shut down.
Means pool human and material resources to realize a goal.
They range from enlightenment to legal regulation to military dictation.
The active components are mostly information, capital, labor, and natural-processed resources.
c2,1) Desirable non-violent means stress standards of truth, justice and peace with democratic means
of problem/conflict solving by public discussions to argue and convince.
c2,2) Aggressive means solely explore possibilities, maximise results, minimize efforts, remove obsta-
cles and are optimized for profit, sales, market share and reduction of costs.
c2,3) Their major operational tools are administrative organizations and technical devices.
Administrative organizations direct operations towards goal attainment with eg assignment of man-
power, resources, tasks, flow of information, goods, money and their administration.
Technical tools are designed for functionality with eg effectivity, performance, quality, reliability, prac-
ticability, user friendliness and safety.
Special tasks can be handled by eg an expert panel and function designed IT apps.
c2,4) Promotion engages lobbyists and public relation managers for eg information generation, analy-
sis, exchange, presentation, argumentation, negotiation, persuasion, deception and pressure.
c3,1) Human resources range from a heterogeneous base to population wide support.
c3,2) Natural resources range from common desolation to abundance of raw materials.
c3,3) Knowledge resources range from investigative effort to professional community.
c3,4) Administrative resources range from home office to business headquarter.
c3,5) Technological resources range from a basic tool to high tech equipment.
c3,6) Financial resources range from oppressive debts to accumulated savings.
c3,7) Media resources range from a spokesman to multi media empire.
c3,8) Network shared resources range from information exchange to technology transfer.
c3,9) Alliance shared resources range from user rights to combat support.
Interrelations between all forms of groups and social forces start in early stages as points of awareness
and broaden in course of time into interwoven global relations.
They are determined largely by their political-legal-commercial-social goals, where the groups' claims
often go off in blind ambition into opposite extremes at the others' expense, until every vacuum of power
c4,1) Interdependencies exist between all populations, groups, markets, resources and environments.
c4,2) Base states are domination, equilibrium and subordination.
c4,3) Base processes are adaptation, association, cooperation, codetermination, supplementation, co-
existence, competition, counteraction, dictation, take-over and invasion.
c4,4) Interactions in the professional fields are eg in
◦ The sciences: information exchange, interdisciplinary research and transfer of technologies.
◦ Commerce: trade agreements with investments and integration of markets.
◦ Politics: traffic barriers for more national self-determination.
◦ Culture: international festivals and foreign exchange programs.
c4,5) Convergence of interests can be by eg rapprochement, clarification, verification, joint venture.
c4,6) A productive balance between larger social formations with their political-social impulses can be
found in a 'heterozygous mix' in a specific historic situation. It is established by their advocates, con-
stituencies, organizations and planning panels in cross interactions, where all camps contribute to
Social forces co-determine spiritual, social and natural environmental states, changes and boundaries.
They are long term in- and external, interacting variables of individual and collective lives.
They are as social heritage result of past and present trend setting social forces and visible as the entire-
ty of longer lasting mental-human-natural products.
They are legally treated as a non-contractual framework with favorable and restrictive conditions.
States are eg
c5,1) Spiritual state is tangible in ethical-legal standards.
c5,2) Mental state ranges from open mindedness to intellectual ossification.
c5,3) Mentality state ranges from sacrificial support to pathologic defiance.
c5,4) Cultural state ranges from avant-garde optimism to post modern disillusion.
c5,5) Vitality state ranges from buzzing live to uniform lethargy.
c5,6) Executive state range from public services to totalitarianism.
c5,7) Legal state range from constitutionality to arbitrariness.
c5,8) Judiciary state ranges from conflict solving to might is right.
c5,9) Economic state ranges from surplus to lack of necessities.
c5,10) Financial state ranges from accumulated savings to suffocating debts.
c5,11) Social state range from eu- to dysfunctional institutions.
c5,12) Media state ranges from pluralistic opinions to hyper-reality.
c5,13) Human infrastructure ranges from cosmopolitanism to ghost towns.
c5,14) Human-material infrastructure ranges from common services to social desolation.
c5,15) Corruptive state ranges from petty to organized crime.
c5,16) Natural environment comprises heliosphere and biosphere with energy, matter, flora and fauna.
Interrelations with natural environments range from cultivation to preservation to destruction.
Changes are caused by eg new emerging motivations and trends in long term goal attainment.
Avant-gardes exist in all professional fields and as new social movements.
Changes are measured qualitatively and quantitatively by leading, coincident and lagging indicators.
c6,1,1) Basic stages are pre-, present- and post-form.
c6,1,2) Basic processes are addition, multiplication, subtraction, substitution and rearrangement.
c6,1,3) Common processes are eg aberration, shift, trend, accumulation, evolution, development,
accommodation, integration, unification, regeneration, transformation, reform, restoration, reversal,
restructuring, interruption, displacement, reduction, diffusion, disintegration, collapse and revolution.
c6,1,4) Modi are eg direction, spread, range, intensity, rate, degree, gradient, volatility, dynamics.
c6,1,5) Paths are eg long term thrust, zig zag fluctuation, cyclical fluctuation, branching off, scatter-
ing off, turnaround, jump, interruption, incision and dead end.
c6,1,6) Predictions are made by futurology, ranging from utopian to apocalyptic scenarios. Utilized
are eg data collection, analysis, comparative study, modeling, simulation, extrapolation, speculation.
c6,1,7) End is by eg intent, deficiency, changed environments or conflict.
c6,2) Boundaries are man's limits of spiritual, mental and physical capabilities.
c6,2,1) Spiritual limits
c6,2,1,1 The distance God - man is infinite, God being the creator of heaven and the earth.
c6,2,1,2) Theological teaching is advanced by spiritual forces through faith and sound theology.
c6,2,2) Mental limits
c6,2,2,1) Man is born in the original and common state of non-knowledge and over centuries
acquired knowledge constitutes only a drop out of an ocean.
c6,2,2,2) Limits of free phantasy exceed factual knowledge by leagues. Below limits, inspiration
abounds, but rarely approaches general fundamentals or far out extremes.
c6,2,2,3) Mental states are improved by social forces through maturity, research, development.
c6,2,3) Natural limits
c6,2,3,1) Man is extremely vulnerable in his natural environment to needs, diseases and dangers.
Traces of natural and synthesized germs, viruses and toxins, not visible to the eye, can be lethal.
c6,2,3,2) Limits of action are set by the possibilities of existing energy, matter, space and time.
Man can utilize and alter conditions, but he cannot create out of his own new physical forces.
c6,2,3,3) Natural limits are expanded by social forces through reason, research, development.
c6,3) Class boundaries are sound theology towards God, reason towards nature, ethics towards socie-
ty and maturity towards man himself.
A social force extends the individual political-social weight and radius of action by gaining for its stake-
holders eg channels of private and official communication, action by legislative and executive authorities,
advice by scientific, technological, industrial, commercial, social communities and study groups, backing
by financial sponsors and favourable reports by the public press to gain a positive public image, realize a
specific project, set up an advantageous political-legal infrastructure, push a political-social program and
coin the political-social character.
Power is human capability of expression. It is part of every human communication and action and as poli-
tical-social power part of every group’s and larger social formation’s short to long term activity.
4d1) Its major active components are intention, conception and expression with means and mechanisms.
4d2) Its scope ranges from non-expression to expression to expression-roll back.
4d3) Its capabilities are described by its radius of action and range today from survival in cosmic dimen-
sions to the self-extinction of man.
4d4) Classification is by
◦ Source as personal, social, biological and material weight with impact.
◦ Field of activity as individual, social, natural and civilizational environment.
◦ Role as legitimation, reward, sanction, expert, model and charismatic.
◦ Means as raw-physical, rational-legal, financial-commercial, attractive-prestigious and spiritual-ethical.
◦ Communication as identification, denotation, interpretation, evaluation, decision and disposition.
◦ Case as epistemic, deontic, dispositional, authoritative and pragmatic.
◦ Organization as positional, structural, processual and relational.
◦ Legality as justified or in misuse.
◦ Visibility as transparent or secret.
◦ Effect as beneficial or detrimental.
4d5) Political-social power is expanded by eg the
◦ Number of active players.
◦ Means, resources and range of leverage.
◦ Number of manipulable factors in a chain of action.
◦ Elimination of restraining and counter-acting factors.
◦ Aggressiveness of active players.
4d6) Political-social power is contained by eg a
◦ Power monopoly of an authorized, supervised and credible institution.
◦ Constitutional definition of institutions with legitimate tasks, means and expected results.
◦ Restriction in size, means, range, place and time of positions of power.
◦ Supervision of positions of power in their ambitions, activities and results.
◦ National – international institution for conflict solving by mediation, arbitration and litigation.
◦ National – international court system for trials and military peace missions.
4d7) Political-social power's generation, possession, delegation, negotiation, execution and oversight
rest de-facto in by political parties contested centers of legislative, executive, judicative and scientific-
technological-commercial institutions with hierarchical structures and processes, unrolling a multitude of
omnipresent, autopoiesic, heterogeneous, public-private, open-hidden, soft-forcing circles of relations, -
while the publicly sensitive ‘issue’ power is often tabooed by eg naturalization, charismatization. secrecy,
disguise and suppression.
4d8) Power with deception and violence is a dirty word. It is always an act of despair.
It is the vilest, lowest and most destructive of all lower instincts.
It has become the moral responsibility of all of the people on earth to fend off the for flora, fauna and hu-
mans looming globally annihilating effects of modern technological means of destruction. -
There is not one legitimate cause, that cannot be achieved with non-violent means.
4d9) Today’s predominant power centers have condensed out of the military-intelligence-scientific-tech-
nological-industrial-financial-commercial communities. They always maximize the required means to sur-
mount political-social counterforces, to neutralize oversight authorities and to pursue as superpowers in
possession of ABCGR weapons in- and external hegemonic policies.
4e) Public discussion
'Freedom is the Health of a Nation.'
Criticism is the Health of an Individual.
(derived from Ludwig Börne)
Pool of people comprises all affected and interested in the management of public affairs.
At the introduction of an issue they are an amorphous, dispersed, non-related, non-organized aggrega-
tion of individuals in a common universe of discourse, moving towards a decision on action.
Pool of voices comprises contributions from the whole spectrum of the people.
Pool of issues comprises all phenomena demanding general recognition.
They are public by the universals of human dignity, welfare, truth, knowledge and codetermination.
4e1) Intentions range from investigative effort to information exchange to image fascism.
4e2) Main intent is to embed all factors of cognition into political-social decision making.
Scaled up intent is to arrive at a durable society with efficient problem-conflict solving.
4e3) Conceptions range from a pedagogic to a news to a manipulative forum.
4e4) Main conception is an open forum of participation for a broad range of opinions.
Scaled up conception is constitutionality with non-violent means of problem-conflict solving.
4e5) Means are enlightenment: cognition, discussion, vote, regulation, realization and supervision.
Enlightenment overcomes with the standards of truth, justice and peace hostile inhibiting factors, - an
act of violence remains always an act of despair.
4e6) Focussing on the issue and its ramifications may require a probing, global search under an appar-
ently calm surface to uncover the relevant factors with their growing and spreading consequences.
Collected are eg aspirations, interests, hopes, expectations, grievances, despair, threats and emer-
gencies, often rallying points for corrective actions. The issue is classified by its professional field as eg
project, theme, problem or open question on an agenda of theoretical and practical tasks.
4e7) Human resources for voluntary and mandatory contributions comprise all people for their diverse
backgrounds, experiences, praxis, knowledge, expertise, esprit and lifestyles, eg affected, responsible,
interested and recruited parties, lone voices, whistle blowers, investigators, reporters, commentators,
writers, publishers, moderators, organizers. managers, lobbyists, political-social representatives, district
attorneys, judges, witnesses, regulators, administrators and professional experts.
4e8) Publication in public media reaches interested local, national and global audiences.
4e9) Formation of public opinion
e9,1) Investigations apply the subjective, relational and objective tools of cognition, especially to scrape
out relevant facts, causal chains, intentions, conceptions and to filter out eg illusions, superstitions, pseu-
do-mental products, error, deception and pressure.
e9,2) Definition delineates the central issue, relevance and possible options.
e9,3) Justification of an option lays out arguments of need, desirability and merit.
e9,4) Criticism of an option lays out counter-arguments of non-need, waste and demerit.
e9,5) Argumentation is by eg causality, generality, probability, plausibility and in proportionality, allow-
ing transparent, recognizable and correctable truth tracking.
Arguments can be with eg flattery, encouragement, assent, advice, table of facts, interpretation, de-
mand, guarantee, vision, ridicule, persiflage, satire, warning, correction and accusation.
e9,6) Presentation can be eg in public forums, multi media, open letters, petitions and memoranda.
e9,7) Stable opinions are arrived at after tentative deliberation, often with assistance by advisory and
expert panels in a specific political-social-natural context.
e9,8) Formation of parties, represented by spokesmen and their organizations, collects various diverg-
ing opinions in groups with common sentiments, interests, goals, programs, convictions, slogans, sym-
bols, cultural backgrounds and worldviews.
e9,9) Negotiations between parties entails choice of place, time and proceedings in a public-private fo-
rum with bargaining, working out of an agreeable solution and a public announcement.
e9,10) Opinion polls predict by extrapolation from a sample the strength and distribution of political-
social-commercial attitudes within a population.
4e10) Decision, a collective product, is the central, radial point, bundling discussions towards a vote,
pooling and distributing resources and handing the event over to the chronicles.
Deciding weights can be eg numbers, persuasiveness, promotion and absence of fear to accept it.
4e11) Public record
Public discussions, omissions and distortions are the main representation of present day society.
They are a historic record of the predominant social forces, their achievements and failures, responsible
for the present state of affairs. A public decision with case history of collective consent and conflict gives
material evidence of political-social self-understanding and state of the human mind of the epoch as it
regards knowledge of God, man, society and nature as tool of power or welfare.
4e12) Social environments comprise all codetermining factors with usages, etiquettes and taboos.
4e13) Excesses are eg show off, language game and variation of surface decoration.
4e14) Inhibiting factors are eg common inertia, superficial media, special interests of cognition, public
opinion, decision and realization, eliminating general public participation by eg propaganda, censorship,
deception and violence.
4e15) Evaluation is by the standards of truth.
4f) Problem solving
4f1) Main intention is to alleviate a natural or human deficiency, threatening a physical damage, which
can be solved mostly by administrative and technical means.
4f2) Issues range from daily needs to creeping erosions to catastrophic incisions.
4f3) Standards are those of human dignity, integrity of nature and their value scale.
4f4) Legal sources are national constitutions with their bodies of law and international law.
4f5) Human resources comprise the spectrum of the population with project leaders, advisory panels, an
infrastructure of educational, administrative and commercial institutions and the scientific community.
4f6) Material resources comprise the means of existing-set up and private-public institutions.
4f7) Decision is cast by a vote of the community.
4f8) Implementation is achieved by eg planning, financing, realization and supervision.
4g) Conflict solving
Political-legal resolution constitutes the most urgent ethical-administrative task as social forces are most-
ly in conflict, in a permanent war with opposing interests. Today they clash as misuses of power with admin-
istrative-technological tools of mass misapplication and destruction for exploitation of all tangible resources
around the globe at the expense of people's and nature's rights, - having replaced nation building conflicts
of the past.
g1,1) Main intention is to solve a conflict out of opposing interests voluntarily on satisfactory terms within
a frame of common interests by an assisting mediator.
g1,2) Parties are individuals, national and international organizations and sovereign nations.
g1,3) Issues are private, public, case specific and general conflicts in all fields of life.
g1,4) The mediator reaches an agreement out of best knowledge and responsibilities of the parties.
g1,5) Implementation is by mutually agreed on actions.
g2,1) Main intention is to solve a conflict out of opposing interests by submitting it to clause specified,
binding determination by an arbitrator within a contractual frame aside from local, uncertain practices.
g2,2) Parties are individuals, national and international organizations and sovereign nations.
g2,3) Issues are private, public, case specific and general conflicts in all fields of life.
g2,4) The arbitrator reaches a decision by assessment of the rights of the parties.
g2,5) Implementation of awards is by attending parties with local executory force.
4g3) Litigation on the national level
g3,1) Main intent is to solve a conflict between social parties by a suit at the court of jurisdiction.
g3,2) Parties are individuals, private, public institutions on the city, county, state and national levels.
g3,3) Issues are conflicts out of private, social, commercial and public life.
4g4) Litigation on the international level
g4,1) Main intent is to fend off a conflict with acute violence, threatening human, material and environ-
mental damages, to be solved by political mediation, arbitration and litigation in combinations to work
towards mutually advantageous rapprochement by eg clarification, de-escalation, incentives, competi-
tion, compromise, co-operation, compensation, reconciliation, levelling of undue inequalities and as a
last resort by tribunal and intervention with legal force.
g4,2) Parties are individuals, national and international organizations and sovereign nations.
g4,3) Issues are violations of human and nature's rights, affecting in first line individuals and their im-
mediate surroundings by exploitation, torture, terrorism, civil strife, war and environmental destruction.
g4,4) Standards are observation of internationally, legally protected human and nature’s rights in equal-
ity and universality with compensation for damages, access by relief organizations and the press.
g4,5) Legal sources are national constitutions with their bodies of law, global customs, accepted behav-
ior, codifications by agreements, resolutions and treaties, interpretations and supranational law.
A Charta of the Community of Nations and Organizations, being ratified by members and binding in
their decisions, comprises task specific Conventions on Human Rights, on Nature's Rights, on War
and Weapons, Mandates of Inspection, Prosecution, Entitlement, Implementation and Oversight.
g4,6) Human resources are contributions out of the international political-legal-diplomatic community.
g4,7) Material resources are an International Court System, adjudicating international political-legal
issues and an International Executive Political-Military Panel with standing, standby and expandable
armed forces, set up by contributions of the International Community.
g4,8) Inspection investigates violations of human and nature's rights globally across all fields of life.
g4,9) Public trial is initiated by party charge and prosecution by the International Court.
g4,10) Evidence by established proof of facts comprises all relevant aspects with eg facts of the
case, motivations, actions, damages, violations, environments, prospects and historic constellation.
g4,11) Parties are called to court at its site in public sessions according to criminal proceedings.
g4,12) Decision is made by the International Court with Entitlement to determine political goals and
means. Options are eg moral suasion, freezing of funds, diplomatic isolation, fine, compensation pay-
ment, boycott, sanctions and military intervention with support of the victimized party.
g4,13) Appeal of fact finding and decision is made before an International Political-Legal Forum.
g4,14) Implementation rests on local authority and an International Executive Political-Military Panel.
Oversight follows up on all operations from political initiatives to war operations to refugees.
g4,15) A peace plan comprises eg treaty, basic human rights, reconstruction and international aid.
4g5) Environmental litigation
Man as part of nature stands at their intersection and acts as advocate for the rights of man and as rep-
resentative advocate for the rights of nature and safeguards himself against adverse natural forces and
equally safeguards nature against adverse human forces.
g5,1) Main intent is the conservation of the planetary habitable zone with its biosphere to preserve
planet earth, man’s birthplace, as a stable, vital, diverse, long term physiological base.
g5,2) Scaled up intent for man and nature is to survive as one community of life in cosmic dimensions.
g5,3) Main issues are protection of the diversity of species, natural resources, the atmosphere, hydro-
sphere and lithosphere.
g5,4) Parties are nature in all of its multifarious appearances and local, national and international organ-
izations, drawing on natural resources.
g5,5) Standards are the integrity of nature in balance with the welfare of man.
g5,6) Legal sources, human, material resources and inspection correspond to those of national and in-
ternational litigation with UN Charters for the conservation of special forms of life and resources.
g5,7) Environmental litigation is a major source of new international law to solve conflicts in coopera-
tion on a global scale, which cannot be handled alone regionally.
g5,8) It is based on learning from history as well as scientific evidence, projecting the requirements for
adequate conditions of life on earth for man and nature and relies therefore heavily on
g5,8,1) Clear and measurable goals, defined by legal-environmental markers.
g5,8,2) Education, training, public information campaigns and canvassing.
g5,8,3) Global dialogs, conciliation of diverging interests, dispute settlement and partnerships.
g5,8,4) Diffusion of technologies, financial incentives and support programs.
g5,8,5) Adoption of national and international long term strategies and measures for conservation.
g5,9) Rights of nature are a pressing issue because of man’s self-centered interests of production, con-
sumption and employment of aggressive technologies to threaten planetary catastrophes.
Goals and means are the focal points of supervision.
Especially positions of power require regulation, supervision and corrective measures.
Monitoring of their ambitions and activities is a global moral obligation of all of the people as sovereign,
as power outside of legal standards is the most devastating lower drive to impair basic living conditions
and to cause with loss of integrity, reliability and confidence the collapse of the political-social system.
Public political, legal, scientific, technological, commercial, social and cultural institutional operations are
therefore required to be codified, transparent, accessible and contestable with replicability of their activi-
ties by affected parties, the general public and the public press in an equitable environment according to
accountability standards. They are enforced by local authorities and a globally stratified court system.
4h1) First stage of jurisdiction covers eg
◦ Scientific activities by academic review boards.
◦ Technical activities by control organizations.
◦ Commercial activities by trade organizations.
◦ Administrative activities by accounting offices.
◦ Nature invasive activities by administrative agencies.
◦ Daily life activities by police departments.
4h2) Main intention is protection of the general public in their eg
h2,1) Basic human rights in a constitutional environment against misuses of power by oversight over
positions of power according to local and national law and the UN Charta and to be enforced by na-
tional and international penal courts.
h2,2) Public health in a sound natural environment against pollution of air, soil and water by anyone ac-
ording to scientific standards and to be enforced by civil, administrative and penal courts.
h2,3) Inviolability of body and property in a sound social environment against injuries and damages in
all private and public areas like homes, workplaces, public places and buildings, transportation and
public events according to applicable laws and regulations and to be enforced by civil, administrative
and penal courts.
h2,4) Inviolability of body and property in a sound commercial environment against injuries and damag-
es by faulty products and handling-operating instructions according to liability standards and to be en-
forced by civil and penal courts.
h2,5) Consumer welfare in a fair, competitive commercial environment against exclusionary and pre-
datory market manipulations for profit according to eg anti trust, financial transaction, copyright, fair
media and data privacy laws and to be enforced by commissioned oversight authorities.
4h3) Supervision comprises preparation, regulation, oversight, reporting and enforcement.
h3,1) Preparation is by consultations, drafting and public debate.
h3,2) Regulation is by enacted legal-administrative laws, statures, rules, guidelines, recommendations
and law practice.
h3,3) Oversight is by ad hoc inspection, regulatory audit and continuous monitoring to verify compli-
ance and to secure evidence of non-compliance.
h3,4) Findings are reported to supervisory committees, regulatory commissions of the affected juris-
dictions, politically responsible representatives, scientific journals, the public press and the public.
h3,5) Enforcement is by regulatory supervisors and local, state, federal, international authorities within
a national and international court system to pursue fact finding, publication, public discussion, mediation,
prosecution and litigation.
Appropriate actions can be eg deferral, instruction, demand for a provision or restriction, shut down of
an activity, sanctions like freezing of funds, buycott, fine, imprisonment and military intervention.
Ethics solve historic cases of gross criminal corruption with disastrous consequence.
The majority of man and society strives for advantages, predominance and elimination of opposition.
They employ any means conceivable to fall in their criminal capacity indefinitely low, if not arrested.
4i1) Its intent is to preserve ethical freedom that not an inhibiting factor runs to its self-destructive end.
4i2) Scaled up intent is moral utopia: spiritual, human and natural awareness, where public comprehen-
sion is able to discern, describe, evaluate and act for the long term survival of man and society.
4i3) It is trained on issues with universal principals of dignity, life and truth.
4i4) It educates the population towards a healthy conscience about true and false, right and wrong.
4i5) It educates the population with spiritual, human, mental horizons of knowledge and an overall com-
prehension with a personal responsibility, enlightenment and beneficial results.
i5,1) A responsibility is chosen as a concrete contribution to life.
Collective, global responsibility probes by case populations for emerging inhibiting factors and by
general oversight present social forces for misuses of power and misdevelopments.
i5,2) Enlightenment are the means of realization with the tools of language, task, value, regulation and
supervision. They are promoted in public with humility, fearlessness, courage and perseverance.
They overcome with spiritual-political determination any hostile, inhibiting factor.
They mobilize human esprit to pool the necessary resources for prevention and roll back of damages.
i5.3) It is result orientated to correct factual, legal and moral wrong.
i5,3,1) An ethical sentence investigates, identifies, publicizes the crime, specifies the object of legal
protection and develops a seamless line of argumentation from cause to damage to remedy.
i5,3,2) A legal sentence defines the statute, assigns the court and initiates prosecution to reach a
decision with law enforcement for protection of value and legal object.
i5,3,3) Reconciliation is promoted by historically accurate recording and compensation of victims.
‘No king is saved by the size of his army; no warrior escapes by his great strength.’ (Ps 33,16)
First lines of defence are set up in the forefield by early warning, prevention and stand by forces.
4j1) Early warning investigates home and foreign relations for potentially escalating trouble spots.
4j2) Prevention pursues political-social peace efforts by local, regional and global conflict solving.
4j3) Stand by forces generate a non-provoking, but visible, convincing deterrence.
Security measures are codified by law, eg their intentions, institutions, means, recruitment, funding and
peace, alert, emergency and war states. Use of force doctrine is restricted to defence.
Their backbones are determination and contributions from the whole spectrum of the population.
Oversight over security concepts, sciences, technologies, weapons and stockpiles of mass destruction is
by the general public and inspectors according to national and international conventions.
4j4) After exhaustion of every alternative means towards a peaceful settlement, left standing is an inal-
ienable, legitimate right of self-defence as a last refuge against an attacking enemy.
j4,1) The political-social leadership gives corresponding orders to the secretary of defence.
j4,2) Means of defence are an adequate standing army, navy and air force of modern state of the art
with resolution, readiness, reputation, sufficient size, resources and reserves.
4j5) Inhibiting factors are eg lack of political will, foresight, vigilance, knowledge and means.
j5,1) Gross deficient conflict solving leads to gross corruption and escalating conflicts.
j5,2) Arbitrary sovereignty, hegemonic policies and militaristic calculations lead to open and covered
political murder, terrorism, civil strife, war, occupation and programs of permanent exploitation.
j53) Warfare with modern weapons of mass destruction is self-destructive with annihilation of billions
of people, destruction of build land, devastation of natural land, global pollution and climate collapse.
j5,4) Human sufferings are eg loss of civil rights, independence and a physiological base, persecution,
flight, ravages, perversities, atrocities and mass liquidations.
III B 5 Essentials
5a) Physiological base
5a1) Physical cosmos
The physical cosmos is qualitatively and quantitatively depictable, causally explainable and in its devel-
a1,1) Cosmogony reconstructs through backward extrapolation the earliest physical conditions of the
cosmos. From a singularity at a finite point in space-time about 14×109 years ago, a state of extreme
density of radiation energy, approaching Planck’s time ht, it exploded, cooled and developed into the
present geometry with a multitude of material formations.
a1,2,1) The macro-cosmos is a coherently gravitation bound, isotropic, homogeneous, accelerating
inflationary Riemann geometry with asymptotic Minkowski properties towards infinite. It developed
stable single and groups of galaxies, clusters, nebula, stars and planetary systems.
a1,2,2) The meso-cosmos constitutes the validity range of classical, non-relativistic physics.
Its phenomena of abiotic matter are described by physics, chemistry and their fields of study.
a1,2,3) The micro-cosmos enfolds according to the standard model out of 3 classes of elementary
particles: point like spin ½ particles, field particles of the 4 forces and Higgs particles, endowing ele-
mentary, subatomic particles with mass. It is ruled predominantly by strong, weak and electro-
magnetic forces, unified in a single theory. It is described by Quantum Mechanics, Electro-, Chro-
mo- und Flavordynamics.
a1,3) Eschatology projects through forward extrapolation future physical conditions of the cosmos for
the next 1027 years as a continuing, entropy gaining, spatial expansion, dispersion of matter and emis-
sion of radiation to leave black dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.
5a2) Natural environments
Natural environments are long term variables of in nature found energy, matter, flora and fauna.
a2,1) The Heliosphere, a star of medium size and luminosity, about 4.5×109 years old, generating by
nuclear fusion electromagnetic radiation, a gravitational and geometrical center of nine orbiting plan-
ets including Pluto, allows a long, stable developmental time span for evolution of organic life.
a2,2) The earth's magnetic field extends as magnetosphere asymmetrically ~ 6o ooo km sunwards
and ~ 1 2oo ooo km away from it. Layered below are the plasmasphere and ionosphere.
It deflects charged particle of the solar wind, which would erode the upper atmosphere with the ozone
layer, shielding against ultra-violet radiation.
It deflects together with the heliosphere cosmic ray from outside the solar system.
a2,3) The Biosphere describes all single factors enclosed by the atmosphere.
a2,3,1) The atmosphere of the earth, reaching about 10 km upwards, consists out of 78% N2, 21%
O2, 0,03% CO2 and in its lower layers up to 4% of H2OVAP. It dampens by circulation temperature
and pressure differences, carries precipitation inland and serves as a metabolic fuel.
a2,3,2) The hydrosphere in forms of gas, ice and liquid, found to 99,7 % in the oceans, supplies with
sweet water the largest component of plants and animals and is indispensable in their metabolism.
a2,3,3) The lithosphere, the outer, firm, plate layered mantle of the earth, reaching about 100 km
deep, has as its crust the pedosphere with rocks, stones, sands and soils of various qualities.
a2,3,4) The biotic environment includes all living organisms in water, land and air.
a2,4) Ecology describes individual, population and environmental abiotic and biotic forces, require-
ments and conditions of life with their multifaceted interdependencies in the development over geo-
logical time spans. A local ecological environment often forms out a self-organizing, semi-closed sys-
tem with an energy and metabolic cycle along an ascending food chain in a labile dynamic balance.
a2,5) Man causes massive, non-sustainable, often irreparable environmental incisions for exploitation
of resources with pollution of water, land and air, with changes of weather patterns and global climatic
shifts, with burn up of natural resources and depletion of non-renewable resources, with reduction of
biotopes and biodiversity.
‘Feed the man dying of hunger, - if you do not uphold him, you have killed him.’ (AAS 54  p 792)
All immediate living areas require for existence the economy.
Basic components are persons, objects and rights.
Basic measures of credit/debit value are exchange value and an agreed on currency.
Basic exchanges are of information, goods, services, money and rights.
Management with handling and accounting of goods turns human, fauna, flora and material resources
into products for use with added value. People have to employ mental and physical labor as needed
human resources require years of training and experience, needed fauna and flora laborious cultivation
and needed materials elaborate workmanship, are mostly not readily available, but of natural state,
scarce, scattered, hard to access and foreign owned. Learning and work take up the largest part of life.
5b1) Forces are those of originators and social forces They develop a multitude of drives from basic
needs to ever increasing demands, commercializing and co-determining all aspects of life.
5b2) Interest formations are eg business associations, unions and political parties.
5b3) Means are predominantly knowledge, capital, labor and natural/man made resources.
5b4) Costs are fixed-variable operational, environmental protective and public transactional for eg politi-
cal-legal frameworks and infrastructure, financed direct-indirectly by fees, taxes and special levies.
5b5) Economic phenomena as human actions are qualitatively and quantitatively depictable by eg re-
ported accounting data, polls, frames, regularities, generalities, probabilities and laws of nature.
Measured, analysed, evaluated and predicted are eg prices, sales, profits, assets, debts, consumer
spending, investments, savings, unemployment, exports, imports, trade-money balances, exchange
rates, money supply-circulation, inflation, stocks, bonds, taxes, public budget, DNP and GNP.
5b6) Disciplines of theoretical, normative, applied studies as part of sociological sciences are eg man-
agement, organization, production, marketing, micro-macro-economics, money, finance, growth, labor,
social concerns, special branches and interdisciplinary fields like law, journalism and ecology.
5b7) Types comprise mostly the market, command, real, information, paper and informal economies.
5b8) Economic, often overlapping fields are eg foods, clothing, housing, energy, production, services,
trade, logistics, communication, finance, accounting, consulting, lobbying and regulation.
5b9) Economic levels are retail, wholesale, processing, production and natural resources.
5b10) Economic institutions are eg private-public corporations, institutes and regulative agencies.
b11,1) Frameworks are legislative, judicative, executive, central bank norms, policies and usages.
b11,2) Theoretical frames range from pseudo products like sectarian rule, dogma, ideology, sys-
tem to political-social-economic program and descriptive typification and characterisation.
b11,3) Economic states range from laissez-faire with free market cutthroat competition to a regu-
lated economy with market intervening parameters to prohibition with an illegal black market to cen-
tral planning with exclusive state monopolies.
b11,4) Assisting are eg multipliers like money, infusions like subsidy, incentives like profit, promoters
like guarantee, stimulation programs like tax cut and sponsorships like support for a project.
b12,1) Exchanged are eg information, labor, services, titles, money and resources.
b12,2) Accumulated are eg savings, debts, knowledge, infra structure, waste and damages.
b12,3) In labile equilibrium held by free market mechanisms are eg demand and supply.
b12,4) In cycles run eg motivations, product know-how, improvements, money, boom and bust.
b12,5) Up and down move eg moods, trends, vitality, irrationalities and expectations.
b12,6) Continuously regenerating are eg human resources like experience and skills.
b12,7) Division of labor is practised in all sectors with allotted tasks, sites and schedules.
5b13) Mass effects arise by eg common, repetitive, predominant and catalytic economic behavior.
5b14) Excesses arise mostly from concentration of wealth with misapplication against weaker parties.
5b15) Inhibiting factors are eg
b15,1) Lack of political will, knowledge, resources or equitable national-global parameters.
b15,2) Usurpation of frameworks by deception and coercion, mostly followed by disregard of large
scale waste, risks and dangers, leading to severe, irreversible misdevelopments and damages.
5b16) Evaluation is by eg freedoms, equitable distribution, public welfare, global balance, vitality, pro-
ductivity, benefits-costs, challenges, advancements, state of environments and resources.
Freedom, man’s ability of movement in natural, human, social and spiritual dimensions is a basic and
universal requirement of human activities. Every movement in any environment requires freedom. It is a
state for being, encompassing passively absence of intrusion and non-use, actively liberation, use, expan-
sion and also transgression of boundaries, which backfires on itself.
c1,1) Submission leads to physical enslavement, mental stupor and often extinction.
c1,2) Liberation from political barriers is won by awareness, will, resources and often conflict, - from
mental barriers like idolatry, superstition, illusion by sound theology, reason and maturity.
c1,3) Use is by intentional restraint or actual expression with communication and action.
Common characteristics are eg essential or superfluous, major or minor, daily or scarcely, actual or po-
tential, stable or fragile, adequate or inadequate, encroaching on others or not, seen or not.
Modi of movement are given by eg direction, range, speed, path, dynamics and volatility.
c1,4) Expansion is by eg adaptive, social, educational, administrative, technical means, change of
conditions and environments to widen the radius of action.
c2,1) Natural freedoms utilize by nature given rooms of individual and collective movement.
c2,2) Civilizational freedoms utilize cultural-social-scientific-technical opportunities.
c2,3) Individual freedoms are possibilities of physical, mental and spiritual activities of a person.
c2,4) Collective freedoms are individual freedoms in collective endeavors.
They enclose set up, maintenance, expansion, alteration, regeneration, reduction and termination of
relations for eg information, assembly, association and activities in all fields of life.
c2,5) Basic freedoms of movement, privacy, security, speech, action, assembly, education, property,
profession, culture and religion are largely constitutionally codified as inalienable human rights.
c2,6) Inner freedoms comprise internal un- and conscious neuro-physiological processing.
c2,7) Outer freedoms comprise external conscious bio-mechanical-vocal expressions.
c2,8) Truth’s freedom allows unrestricted research and description of God, nature, man and society.
c2,9) Ethic’s freedom does not allow a major inhibiting factor to run to its self-destructive end.
c2,10) Historical freedom is a state of affairs with minimal causal dependencies, where not imbalance,
enslavement, disintegration, destruction, collapse or catastrophe determine public actions.
c2,11) Cosmic freedom prevails over longer periods, where causes of historical developments with
their large number of factors are not any more predictable by laws or theoretical approaches, but are
subject to chances. Achievements of later born stand in alternatively open and equivalent time.
c2,12) Overall freedom is the sum of singular freedoms, their combination and interaction.
c3,1) Singular freedoms of several persons, acting often in association in the same direction, eg as-
sist, overlap, complement, add, multiply and inspire each other.
c3,2) Singular freedoms of several persons, not in interaction, coexist with each other.
c3,3) Singular freedoms of several persons, acting often in conflict in opposite direction, eg level,
compete, exclude, undermine, impair, encroach on and envy each other.
5c4) Balanced freedoms grant a maximum of freedom to each individual and group within a larger com-
munity of people, while observing obligations, rights, weights, limits and reconciliation of conflicts.
5c5) Limits of freedoms are natural and man made physical restrictions and sanction enforced guidelines
of behavior like a social classification, statute, norm, tradition, usage or etiquette.
Common characteristics are eg resistant or ductile, enforced, circumvented or disregarded.
Their range can be given by eg extent of possibilities and rights and conditions like rules of accessibility.
5c6) Inhibiting factors are restriction, bondage and incapacitation by pretended justifications.
Today, common practice worldwide are arbitrary private and government restrictions to privacy, property,
travel, migration, choice of residence and profession, movement of ideas and goods, free speech, assem-
bly, religion and access to communication. Means of enforcement range from social sanctions to sublime
oppression to data based rooms of surveillance and administration to deception and violence.
5c7) Evaluation is as
c7,1) Room of movement by eg awareness, potential, reality, use and misuse.
c7,2) Restriction by positive sources like ethics and negative sources like arbitrariness.
Man is centered in his convictions. They are the pivotal deciding points of his actions.
A conviction springs out of faith or a vision or a human concept about life in relation to man, society, na-
ture and the infinite.
As a living organism with a biological base, it unfolds in themselves independent psychic, mental and
spiritual activities and trains itself by experience, cognition, awareness and knowledge.
It pursues contemplative, scientific, aesthetic research to grasp spiritual, understand human and explain
natural issues, to describe, interpret, calculate and evaluate them from the micro to macro-level.
It generates intent and concepts out of an abundance of possible contributions to life and matter.
Anthropological behavior is integrated into considerations of the multitude of concepts, values and long
term future in cosmic dimensions to eclipse homo-cerebralis, -culturalis, -legalis, -activans, -faber, -socio-
logicus, -cooperativus, -oeconomicus, -ludens, -vitalis, -capax, -patiens and -debilis.
5d1) Steps of cognition
d1,1) Passive steps are to stay away from
◦ Lower instincts of prestige, power, possessions and pleasure.
◦ Pseudo-mental products like myth, idolatry, superstition, illusion and ideology.
◦ Evil, degrading individual rights, social frameworks and the natural environment.
d1,2) Active steps are to initiate
◦ Questioning towards valid knowledge by its subjective, relational and objective factors.
◦ Expansion of the canon of knowledge in scope, depth and quality.
◦ Application of overall comprehension in realization of practical projects.
5d2) Horizons of awareness
d2,1) On the individual level acquired are
◦ Sensual and psychic awareness, generating personal, social and environmental awareness with in-
dividuality, sociality and orientation across all layers of reality.
They are the basic steps towards universal treatment of all objects.
They are trained by eg curiosity, experience, education, cognition, management of knowledge and
the present day agenda of practical and theoretical tasks like issues for conflict solving.
◦ Personal and collective goals for one’s life work.
A habitual way of life with repetitive activities, being the largest part of study, work and social prac-
tices, serves as a locomotive engine to move large loads.
d2,2) On the meso-level acquired are
◦ A spiritual horizon with principles of conviction.
◦ A mental horizon with knowledge about man, society, nature and God.
They are commonly referred to as images of man, society, nature and God.
◦ A human horizon with long term aspirations and challenges for man.
◦ A historic horizon with past events leading up to present political-social affairs.
◦ Overall comprehension with values, priorities, responsibilities, means, tasks and supervision.
d2,3) On the macro-level a visionary horizon encompasses man's pragmatic forces with actual to pos-
sible radius of action and responsibilities in cosmic dimensions.
◦ Responsibilities of individual-collective convictions are towards posterity and life.
◦ Standards are the existential, humanitarian, universal and social values.
◦ The primary social value is the unity of mankind in historic freedom.
5d3) Results gain
◦ Overcoming with enlightenment hostile and inhibiting factors.
◦ Positive contributions to life and matter with their innumerable factors.
◦ Expansion of man’s boundaries towards survival in cosmic dimensions of space-time.
5e) Service society
A service society is neutral in character to provide needed and accountable services to the public.
Its basic services provide for the essentials for man, society and nature within common solidarity.
Its scaled up intent is to expand historic freedom.
Its scaled up conception is an open, lean, competitive, incentive, venturous social fabric.
Its aspirational red thread is constitutionality with basic, realizable rights throughout cosmic dimensions.
Judicial restraint to essential services for human freedoms, a viable physiological base, a durable socie-
ty, the rights of nature and realization of individual-collective convictions strives to keep the social fabric
free of pseudo-mental products like illusions, eg human capabilities and convenience, philosophical over-
loads like schools of social thought, excesses like large commercial-financial-social imbalances, misde-
velopments like environmental degradation and inhibiting factors like exploitation of man and nature up
to hegemonic policies.
5e1) Legal equality comprises all economic activities, the procurement of raw materials, the processing
of raw materials and the provision of personal, material and advisory services according to common
standards of transparency, accessibility, quality, reliability, administrative-technical state of the art, cost-
efficiency and accountability.
5e2) The spectrum of publicly available services is determined by a variety of social forces, eg needs of
the people, comparative standards of living/work environments, public opinion and interests, supply and
demand on the markets, major political-economic-social forces, government policies and the expanding
scientific-technological-social knowledge base.
Areas of general public interest are eg information about services, security, human rights, health, food,
clothing, housing, energy, water, traffic, transportation, education, communication, social welfare and en-
5e3) Organization is by eg basic-extensive, public-private, profit-non-profit, individual-chain integrated,
independent-subordinate centers-networks of service providers.
5e4) Codification is as tasks with intent, legitimation, scope, means, resources, performance criteria, su-
pervision and contestability to be in first line accountable to the public.
5e5) Financing is by eg direct-indirect, flat-linear-pro/degressive taxes, duties, fees, tolls and by free mar-
5e6) Supervision is by eg political-economic-social anti-trust agencies and the general public to safe-
guard against eg ideologization for justification of special interests, discrimination for realization of spe-
cial interests and block formation of special interests for extended leverage.
5e7) Knowledge base
Generation and application of knowledge are pivotal assets of all human endeavours.
In public affairs the available political-scientific-technological-social-human-environmental-information is
the starting point for public questions, opinions, speculations, discussions, decisions and actions.
Basic social service is therefore the provision of knowledge to the general public.
e7,1) Generation large scale by institutionalized, systematic, generations running research and devel-
opment with meticulous employment of the tools of cognition. The gained data base includes the
◦ Objects’ properties, forces, functions, structures, processes and consequences.
◦ Objects’ uncertainties, risks, dangers, possible misuses, misdevelopments and weaponizing.
◦ Agenda of planned, future research and development.
◦ Safeguards against inhibiting factors like special interests of cognition, publication and application.
e7,2) Management by set up of an ordered, pragmatic canon of knowledge.
e7,3) Publication of R&D results for public discussion and evaluation.
e7,4) Education and training of succeeding generations in a public school system.
e7,5) Application in problem - conflict solving and in all professional fields of life.
e7,6) Representation of the present day human, mental, historic and spiritual horizons.
5e7) Knowledge application
Applications evolve out of goal definition and philosophy of research.
Goals range from solely private endeavours to social services to charity.
Their private and public institutions leave a large size footprint on the political-scientific-industrial-com-
mercial-social-environmental character of the times.
Realization of a project is by
e7,1) Mental processing in subject true treatment, centering its attention on the subjective factors of
intention, conception, mental operations, question, search, experience, cognition, comprehension and
reflection to arrive at a workable design of expression.
e7,2) Material realization in object true treatment, centering its attention on the objective factors of
expression by communication and action with their institutions and technical devices to arrive at the
Steps of realization can be eg decision, literature - field search, forecast, feasibility study, planning, re-
search, development, design, organizing human-material-financial resources, test runs, provision of
goods and services, marketing, public relations, feed back evaluation and corrective action.
e7,3) Universal standards
Steps of mental processing and material realization are guided by universal standards to arrive at a re-
sult with merit.
◦ Values are by class spiritual, existential, humanitarian, environmental, cosmic, universal, framework
and object related as outlined above in 2a - 2c.
◦ Priorities are non-violence and address of major issues, the essentials of man, society and nature.
◦ Man is responsible to act in stewardship of the creation. (Gen2,15)
Responsibilities are codified as local, regional, national and international laws and customs.
They guarantee individual, inalienable, basic human rights to be claimable by national and interna-
tional litigation before a globally structured court system.
◦ Means are in first place enlightenment in seamless argumentation to convince and correct.
His Spirit with faith, truth and justice overcomes hostile forces. (Rev 19,13)
Power components of mental processing and material realization are strictly limited point by point
and step by step to the necessary degree required.
e7,4) Inhibiting factors of knowledge applications are mostly deceptions for motivation, public opinion
and reality control.
III B 6 Schools of social thought
A social fabric is built on universal spiritual, existential, humanitarian, environmental and cosmic values,
especially the unity of mankind, based on equity and justice with the rule of law.
Its mental, constructive products are based on sound theology, reason and maturity.
In all they benefit each individual of the population to equal parts with a maximum of mental and physical
mobility in historical freedom.
Past and present schools of social thought claim these standards, eg the church, state and economic --
social marks, which are often presented as a political-social character, model and system.
A church is an institution of organized spiritual forces.
6a1) Self definition
It defines itself out of its past history, present faith and common destiny of man.
Its credo, a symbolon, accepting the living God (1Tim 4,9), is a synopsis of catechesis.
It represents a religion by its collective credo, spiritual life, teachings, traditions and institutions.
Its congregations confess their faith in a liturgy with word, song, music, praise, prayer, confession, read-
ing, sermon, reconciliation, intercession, credo, sacrament and pledge.
Its theology, interpreting His word, aim at the best possible finding of His will. (Col 1,9)
It transforms the mystery of the hidden God (Isa 45,15), His will (Eph 1,8), works (Ps 92,5) and incarnate
Son Jesus (Heb 1,3) into truth and presence. (Joh 16,13)
Its inner mission is education, its outer mission to spread His word and grace to everybody to be heard,
discussed, understood, accepted and converted to (Kerygma). (Mat 28,19)
It sets up an internal code of ethics for members, teachers, bishops and church institutions.
It sets up a general code of ethics for political-legal-social frameworks and government proceedings.
It assembles in communities, synods, national churches and episcopal colleges with egalitarian to hier-
archical structures to develop opinions on regional and universal issues.
Its avant-garde sets examples in teaching and service at home and abroad.
It provides professional political-social services to the public like diaconate and charity (Pro 19,17; Act
9,36), healing (2Kin 2,21; Luk 9,6) and catechesis. (Ecc 1,13; 2Tim 2,15)
It recommends regulation (Exo 35,1; Heb 10,16) and supervision (Ecc 3,15; Luk 16,2), initiates conflict
solving (Mel 2,5; Mat 5,9) and warns of dangers to come. (Neh 9,26; Rev 22,20)
6a7) Ecumenical movement
It cooperates with all people carrying responsibility for the common good. (Ex 33,19; Eph 6,8)
It promotes the inner ecumenical movement to unify its denominations and the global ecumenical move-
ment in dialogs to let the faith of religions grow together.
It does not collaborate with corruption, deception or violence, but stands up against depravity (Ps 45,7;
1Tim 6,12), withdraws its engagements and protects its sheep. (Ps 23,1; Joh 10,14)
Against prosecution, as ‘Christians are subject of hate because they oppose worldly pleasures’ (Epistle
to Diognetus V), its survival strategies are independence, love, truth, unity and perseverance.
Its bishops, priests and laity as torchbearers of His Word are accountable to the people.
Against violators of the codes of ethics, the public has a right to criticism, resistance and prosecution.
6a10) Hypocrisy is cheesiness of the spiritual leaders especially towards the priorities of overall compre-
hension: non-violence and address of major issues.
6a11) Pseudo-products and -concepts
Pseudo-theological products are eg God's people, God's realm, infallibility and divine predestination.
Pseudo-theological concepts are eg projections of rigid theological dogma into the social fabric.
Excesses are eg sale of indulgences and discrimination for membership in any religious community.
6a13) Inhibiting factors
Inhibiting factors are eg Christianisation by force, witch hunt and crusade.
A state is an institution of organized political forces.
Its main characteristic is a wide range of identities, functions, organizations and activities.
6b1) Self definition
A state defines itself organizational out of its population, territory, constitution and out of its esprit.
◦ The permanent population has as citizens member status with defined rights and obligations.
◦ The defined and marked territory is controlled and administered by state authorities.
◦ The constitution specifies the state organs with legislative, executive and judicative powers.
◦ The supreme court enforces the power monopoly by final interpretation of the law.
◦ Social forces shape the religious-political-military-economical-cultural-social character.
The state is represented by a head of state, name, legal identity, administration and national symbols.
It is a person of international law, maintaining independently legal relations with other states.
It is with its government a legitimate, recognized member of the international community of nations.
There are presently 194 fully recognized member state of the UN.
It claims sovereignty over its people and territory and not to be dependent on outside powers.
Its main fields of activities are grand bargains, agenda setting and day to day business.
It establishes a legal codex and national, regional, communal public institutions to introduce, maintain
and regulate the political-military-commercial-social order within a legal framework.
It acts as independent participant in the market as eg investor, service provider and stakeholder.
It sets up regulative mechanisms to regenerate, expand and perpetuate its administrative institutions.
Legitimation is to provide the foundation of the state's claim to power of people over people and equally
over objects, territory and the natural environment. Basic justifications can be
◦ Existence of population and territory by protecting the essentials of life, liberty and property.
◦ Will of the people, who accept state authority in a mutually beneficial, unwritten/written contract.
◦ Merit of services, safeguarding a political-legal-social order with security and human rights.
6b3) State types
Basic state types are the monarchy and the republic as declared in their de-jure constitutions.
◦ A monarchy is a state in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in a monarch.
◦ A republic is a state in which the supreme power rests in a body of citizens, who vote directly or indi-
rectly an assembly of delegates to represent, demonstrate and exercise state authority.
6b4) State functions
Raison d'état is based on the national interest and the government itself, its institutions and personnel.
◦ They span an umbrella over major human physical, psychological, mental and spiritual needs and aspi-
rations to project an attractive all round welfare image.
◦ The court system guaranties basic human rights, conflict solving and legal certainty for all citizens.
◦ The public media provides a platform for discussion of an agenda of theoretical and practical tasks.
◦ The administrative departments set up, provide, regulate, supervise and reform a spectrum of services,
codified as tasks with their institutions, personnel, structures and processes.
◦ They generate dependencies for many social groups in all fields of life, eg internal security, emergen-
cies, media, communication, education, labor, housing, health, energy, commerce, traffic, minorities,
integration and environment.
6b5) Vulnerabilities towards in-external threats are eg hostility of foreign powers, incisive regional/global
environmental changes, usurpation of power by special interest formations and polarizing inequities.
6b6) Pseudo-mental products are eg social programming, social control and secret policy goal.
6b7) Pseudo-mental concepts are eg absolute sovereignty, not to be overruled by basic human rights
and statesmanship, regarding power tools as the only reality creating, controlling and securing means of
an historic achievement.
6b8) Excesses are eg exploitation of man and environment, administrative systems, exhausting every
public/private power vacuum and paramilitary security organizations.
6b9) Inhibiting factors arise mostly out of outgrowth and misuse of power as the most devastating archaic
notion, narrow, vile, hateful, persistent and scheming, eg by non-action on pressing problems, feeding
corruption and depravity into the social fabric, restriction of basic human rights, discrimination, oppres-
sion and political murder.
6c) Economic marks
Economic marks are coined by the entire spectrum of political-social forces, commercializing and co-
determining all aspects of life in all economic fields from foods to regulation, on all levels from extraction
of natural resources to retail and in all aggregates from population growth to GNP.
6c1) Types of economies
Types comprise mostly the market, command, mixed, real-financial, digital and black market economies.
c1,1) Market economy
A free market economy leaves the initiative of economic-financial activities to private investors, entre-
preneurs, inventors, analysts, buyers, sellers, their cooperatives and the many individual consumers.
It is driven by the inner-outer dynamics of self-interest, capital accumulation, in- and output markets
with free prices, competition and opportunities, where profit and prudence are existential necessities.
The government establishes the legal framework with environmental standards, advances commercial-
fiscal policies with eg taxation, supervises regulations, intervenes by corrective action to amend mar-
ket failures by eg price floors/ceilings, dampens boom to bust cycles, provides the physical infrastruc-
ture, secures common social services and engages itself to a limited degree as an economic player.
◦ The central bank lays out monetary guidelines to steer eg interest rates, money supply and inflation.
◦ A public, by competences structured court system arbitrates conflicts out of opposing interests.
◦ The office of statistics, trade journals and the press provide up to date economic data.
The public press brings an agenda of practical and theoretical tasks to open discussion for the for-
mation of public opinions and collective decision making.
◦ Production factors of knowledge, capital, natural resources, means of production, half finished and
finished goods are protected by an enforceable right to private ownership and binding contracts.
◦ Allocation of goods and services in the open market is by the forces of demand and supply, fixing the
daily price as a close point to an adjusted equilibrium of production and consumption.
◦ Labor is traded in the open market by job offers and personal/agent represented applications.
◦ Wages and working conditions are negotiated in collective bargaining and public disputes.
◦ The political-social character of a society is coined by the various competitive social forces, with a
market economy best fitted to adjust to long term dynamic changes, developments and incisions.
◦ Representative example is entrepreneurism. Economic initiatives are taken by private enterprises as
global players, grasping also opportunities with high risk returns through leadership, scientific-techno-
logical-industrial-financial-commercial achievements and realization of favourable economic condi-
tions at home and abroad by lobbying, persuasion and coercion.
c1,2) Command economy
A command economy is centrally planned by a collective policy directing government body.
Discussed, evaluated and decided on are economic policies in collective responsibility by planning and
expert panels of the political elite, exercising a monopoly of political power.
A priority list determines the major fields of economic activities, research and development, which is
integrated into an overall plan for political-military-scientific-technological-financial-educational-cul-
tural-societal goals with adjustments to economic fluctuations and social changes.
Initiated can be giant projects by mobilization of resources, calculation of benefits, costs, uncertain-
ties, risks and dangers without lengthy public discussions or administrative processes.
◦ Set up are short-medium-long term plans to be achieved in every field, sector, unit in every region
of the country, output and growth measured by eg costs, quotas, processing and quality standards.
◦ Allocated are required capital, labor and natural resources.
◦ Researched for are required knowledge and know-how with training of skills and raising of general
◦ Major commercial resources, business organizations, institutions and trade organizations are collec-
tively/government owned and operated as state monopolies.
◦ Foreign trade is conducted by designated trading agents within controlled zones and channels.
◦ The government formulates, enacts and supervises the required laws, regulations and standards.
◦ Planning, activities and results are widely shielded from market forces of eg private preferences, in-
novations, and home/foreign competition, often ignoring shadow markets and corrections of econom-
ic mismanagement up to misdevelopments, which can run quickly into catastrophic dimensions.
◦ Central planning can transform the political-social character of a society by schooling, transition,
adaptation and coercion.
c1,3) Mixed economy
A mixed economy combines elements of a market and command economy to a variable degree.
It strives mostly to enhance economic vitality and deflate social conflicts.
It assigned the political-economic weight to its perceived center of driving social forces, mainly eco-
nomic initiative, ownership, market functionality, social welfare and government intervention.
The liberal/neo-liberal programmatic interests pushed back the traditional political-social predomi-
nance of the government to a minimum by eg privatization in favour of laissez-faire, of individual re-
sponsibilities, self-organization, creativity, private ownership, managerial efficiency, maximization of
profits, free national and international markets of supply and demand as allocative mechanism with-
out political-financial-commercial policies like regulations or subsidies and no more taxes than to
guarantee legal rights and to provide necessary general public services.
◦ Social market economy
The social market programmatic interests balance creation of wealth by private enterprises with pros-
perity and social security of the general population. The pragmatic role of the government comprises
guarantees of legal rights, guarding against market failures like boom and bust, promotion of growth,
research and development, low inflation, full employment, instituting codetermination by unions and
distribution of wealth. An independent federal reserve lays out monetary policies. Adequate living
standards serve as a platform for economic-social synergisms and broad political consensus.
◦ Market socialism
The market socialism programmatic interest is to fend off market distorting effects, leading to aliena-
tion, exploitation and class struggle. It advances broad distribution of wealth, giving the workers the
full product of their labor by eg collective ownership of production assets and means, employee
owned and managed cooperatives, credit unions, issue of shares, profit sharing and social dividends.
The joint ventures compete on the market for assets, natural resources, goods and services for profit,
which finances by levies social services and a basic pension. Macro-economic policies guide econo-
mic developments like investments and export oriented growth.
◦ Government controlled market economy
The government controlled market economy programmatic interests have grown mostly out of re-
forms of the command economy. Economic heights like heavy industry and energy remain incorpo-
rate state institutions, while secondary economic sectors with joint-stock companies allocate assets,
goods and services within regulated profit, management, competition and price limits by negotiating
market forces. A central planning board indicatively regulates macroeconomic financial-commercial
parameters like state investments, research, development, growth, foreign trade and their trends.
c1,4) Real - financial economy
◦ The real economy comprises all commercial objects aside from their legal and monetary values.
They include over the range of the economic fields, levels and aggregates eg tangible production
factors, environmental conditions, administrative economic measures and physical activities, where
real output can be described, analysed and modelled in real units.
They are tied to commercial interests and aspirations as well as needs and their satisfaction as well
as demonstration of wealth.
◦ The financial economy comprises all objects of legal and monetary value.
They include over an equal range eg nominal values of real economic objects, financial assets and
titles, that real output and financial activities can be described, analysed and modelled on a mone-
tary value scale, the financial markets with securities and derivatives, administrative fiscal policies
and monetary authorities’ guidelines.
They are tied to financial interests and aspirations in the real economy and in the financial markets
for financial independence, asset accumulation, liquidity preferences and speculation as well as
needs for financial security.
◦ Interactions between the real and financial economies, being intermeshed, run both ways.
States, activities, expectations and policies in the real economy effect the financial market in eg sav-
ings, debts, money supply, demand and circulation, interest rates, inflation-deflation, exchange rates
and financial balance.
States, activities, expectations and policies in the financial markets effect the real economy in eg
producive investments, corporate organization, growth, bust–boom cycles, employment and the
c1,5) Digital economy
The digital economy is based on new scientific-technological-commercial developments.
It is mainly advanced by private enterprises and has been taken up around the world to increase pro-
ductivity, open up new applications, shorten space and time, reduce costs, resources, waste and to fa-
cilitate access to open source information, - new areas with still insufficient regulations.
Digital computing technologies comprise mainly
◦ Encoding and structuring of information as digital bits according to Boolean algebra.
◦ Processing of computable physical, sensual, lingual, mental tasks by multi media computers.
◦ Infrastructure of a global network, connecting people, organizations and stationary/mobile devices.
◦ Technical devices, task programmed, act on line in real time and AI trained autonomously.
Applications comprise mainly
◦ Digitalization of all commercial-financial processes in all fields and levels.
◦ Digitalization of the commercial wholesale and resale markets by e-commerce.
◦ Research, development and services of the digital computing technologies have created a new eco-
nomic field, exceeding 10% of GDP, with a multitude of new business opportunities.
c1,6) Black market economy
In a black market traded are objects of subjective/objective value like people, information, goods, ser-
vices, money, titles or specified objects like a drug as a damaging to health, morals and peace or a
weapon as a danger to public security or an animal-part worth of protection.
They are by regional, national or international law protected against eg injury, damage and theft, regu-
lated, restricted, supply/price controlled or banned to eg obtain, produce, possess, move, distribute,
trade, process, use or consume.
The objects circumvent the formal, institutional codices and are not being publicly discussed (private
market), licensed (informal market), monitored (shadow market), recorded (non-accounted market,
reported (non-taxed market) or penetrable (underground market).
They are criminalized and require first enlightenment and public support.
Circumvention of the authorities, substitution, new fields for crime, repressive law enforcement, sky-
rocketing violations and polarized public debates spiral measures and counter-measures.
First goal is to advance micro-macroeconomic theories with education, research and development.
Second goal is to advance pragmatic data treatment in collection, publication, analysis and forecasts.
Third goal is establishment of a nationally-internationally binding code of ethics.
Forth goal is to realize stable, legal frameworks with free advantageous rooms of movement by eg
◦ Practice of customer, charity, cultural, social, public and political relations.
◦ Support of the associated social, non-profit sector to provide eg counselling and social services.
◦ Public campaigns for a supportive, receptive social environment for creation of wealth and prosperity.
◦ Formation of business associations for line organization and representation of interests.
◦ Lobbying with legislative, judicative, executive government institutions for incentive political-financial-
economic policies, eg expansion of infrastructure, subsidies for promising technologies, coordination
of political-scientific-technological-economic developments and favourable operative regulations.
◦ Launching of larger projects in the sciences, technologies, infrastructure and environmental protection.
◦ Adaptability of political-regulative rules to grasp opportunities and manage emerging social changes as
in the transitions to the eg industrial, mass, urban, service, global and information societies.
◦ Independence from foreign and scarce resources, business cycles and incalculabilities.
◦ Instrumentalization of globalization and cosmization to gain predominant long term advantages.
◦ Conflict dominance in competition for political-scientific-financial-economic-social power.
◦ Industry collective paramilitary security organizations to fend off in-external threats.
6c3) Vulnerabilities exist especially to pseudo-mental products and usurpatory greed.
Pseudo-mental products are eg trickle down, tax heaven, turbo capitalism and planned economy.
6c4) Excesses are eg large commercial imbalances like monopolies, large financial imbalances like po-
larization of wealth, framework break downs like black markets and short cuts like ideas for cash.
6c5) Inhibiting factors of economic marks are eg exploitation of man and nature, strangulating debts, en-
slavement and violent conflicts.
6d) Social marks
Social marks evolve out of spiritual, political, military, economic, cultural and social forces.
They overlap with all past and present schools, eg the spiritual-hopeful under leadership of a church, the
administrative-functional under leadership of a state and the variety of economic marks.
They comprise mainly individualism, egalitarianism, institutionalism, collectivism, the information society,
the affluent society, militarism and criminality.
They project to a large part a desirable virtue or undesirable vice of man with its world view into the social
fabric and instrumentalize society as a multiplicator of human-material resources to realize their ambi-
tions, - however, philosophically overloaded and criminally degraded, they fall into oppressive, corruptive
dogmas, ideologies and systems.
Individualism, including the immediate family, is the nature given social entity.
It has moved away from clans, classes and social organizations towards the single individual and his am-
bitions. It strives for personal freedom, pioneer spirit, risk, creativity, own resources, responsibility and
accomplishments by self-education, -reliance, -determination, -expression and -realization.
◦ It maximizes personal physical, economic and social independence.
Its telos of mind is to see, think and act by oneself in responsibility.
It contemplates the final decisions to give its life a meaning.
◦ It pursues critical, empirical, scientific enquiries and experimentation.
◦ It preserves a political-social environment with material-social-mental mobility and competition.
◦ It establishes a political-legal framework, favouring individual rights based on human dignity like per-
sonality rights, human rights of free speech, movement, assembly, profession, the arts and religion.
◦ It employs enlightenment in face of ignorance, inability and resistance in the social environment.
◦ It supports struggles for civil rights, equal rights, emancipation and liberation.
◦ It is a driving motor of professional specialization - differentiation and social pluralization.
Pseudo forms are eg eccentricity and a wasteful lifestyle.
As an excess beyond maturity with personal and collective esprit, it can extend to deification and degen-
erate into eg a win or die attitude, self-justice and law of the jungle.
Inhibiting factors are eg despotic concentration of power and legal-social arbitrariness.
Egalitarianism arises out of concerns for the common welfare of the population.
Everybody being born equal by nature, it reduces the chances and vicissitudes of social life to give every
citizen an equal opportunity to start out from.
◦ It maximizes fair distribution of income, wealth and access to social resources.
◦ It encourages collective communication, participation, discussions, decisions, efforts, cooperation, re-
forms, variety and achievements.
◦ It accepts an accomplishment in the professional fields as the only base of social merit.
◦ It establishes a political-legal framework, favouring equal rights on the basis of human dignity like non-
discrimination because of eg origin, race, colour, language, gender, age, minority/majority status, dis-
ability and office.
It protects the existentials of life, liberty, property and due process of law within basic human rights.
◦ It fends off power of people over people by eg political, economic, cultural, social barriers, exploitation,
oppression and illegitimate power tools.
◦ It advocates a classless society without special privileges of eg birth, wealth and position.
◦ It advocates akephalie, a public, collective discussion to find political-social decisions in consensus
and to exclude an established power monopoly as an equality skewing factor.
Pseudo form is eg levelling down.
Inhibiting factors are eg abolition of private property and planned economy.
Institutionalism sets the roof of a social entity on the pillars of solid institutions.
A broad based alliance of political-social elites strives for collective long term historic achievements by
organization, formalization, mobilization and expansion to instrumentalize all fields of life and the entire
population. Central and traditional institutions are the state, court, church, work and school.
◦ It maximizes social fortifications with solidarity, responsibility, discipline and accomplishments.
◦ it establishes a legal-social framework, favouring collective rights like compulsory registration, educa-
tion, military service and limited property rights and civil liberties.
◦ It sets up an efficient infrastructure of human and material resources.
◦ It advances in foreign relations the national interests scrupulously.
◦ It initiates preventive, relief, research, developmental and applicative projects.
◦ It provides communal services with education, socialization, assimilation, integration, participation,
contribution, sacrifice, rehabilitation, regeneration and charity for the disadvantaged.
◦ It cuts down on waste, idleness and extravagances.
Pseudo form is eg a lengthy submissive etiquette towards an institution.
As an excess beyond basic political-social institutions, it can go further by eg overregulation towards a
closed system, machination, draconic penalties and invasion into private relations as in eg patriarchism.
Inhibiting factors are eg non-addressing of pressing problems and arbitrariness by the official machinery.
Collectivism arises out of political-social forces for a reformed social organization with priority of collec-
tive welfare of the people and without gross social inequities by collectivizing all political-social ambi-
tions, structures and processes under one steering committee on a broad based horizontal level.
◦ It maximizes collective, institutional organization of all discussing and deciding assemblies, planning
and executing offices, professional fields and aspects of cultural-social life.
It transforms most private property into collectively owned property.
It transfers the value adding chain from natural resources to consumption into collective management.
It consigns the distribution and reinvestment of produced values to collective decision making.
It assigns education, training, research and development to collective administrative organs.
◦ The individual realizes his potential and aspirations in the collective destiny of the people.
◦ It establishes a political-legal framework, favouring collective rights based on the unity of mankind by
subordination of the individual to the collectivity as specified in a list of common principles.
◦ It promotes common social values like helpfulness, cooperation, solidarity, cohesion, discipline, con-
formity, recognition of interdependencies, collective coordination and decision making.
◦ It integrates marginalized groups, oppressed minorities and fends off internal divisions.
◦ It spreads collectivist thoughts around the globe with an agenda of social concerns and long term
goals to induce transformation of political-economic-social affairs towards a communist system.
As an excess beyond basic collective values, it can extend towards devaluation of the individual and
degenerate into eg unidimensional imitation and submission.
Inhibiting factors are eg abolishment of all private property and dictatorship of the proletariat.
Militarism arises out of political-scientific-technological-commercial interests and pursues its ambitions
for gain, control and dominance with an organized public and secret military machinery.
◦ Political goals can be eg
Defence against a towering competitor up to undercover preparation for war.
Attack for a territorial correction up to global hegemonial policies.
◦ Leadership can be eg a
Military junta, an authoritarian, oligarchic dictatorship.
Stratocratic government with civilian administrative departments under military leadership.
Security council of a complex of associated special interest groups.
◦ Esprit can be eg
Military values like patriotism, prudence, courage, discipline and constant readiness.
Military anti-values like blind deference, recklessness and crimes on military order.
◦ Maximized are eg
Weapon research, development, armament, employment, infrastructure and resources.
Block formation of allies, satellite states and clients along geo-political lines.
Social programming towards a security supportive, non-dissenting population.
Inhibiting factors are eg indoctrination of ideologies and in-external hegemonic policies.
Criminality as a social mark works as a catalyst towards fascism.
Criminality as a defect in drives, mentality, intellectuality and spirituality arises out of criminal inclinations,
hate of man and lower instincts of prestige, power, possessions and pleasure.
It sets up inhibiting to gross inhibiting factors against the telos of mind.
It is first recognized by its cynical derision of God given institutions like the dignity of man.
◦ It arises out of the entire spectrum of the population, the private sector with its professional fields and
social life and out of the public sector with its administrative departments to spread in clandestine un-
derground networks throughout the entire social fabric.
◦ Targets of gain are mostly self-image, language, frame works and physical objects.
◦ Targets of loss are mostly the natural environment, another person's property, social-professional sur-
roundings and man himself.
◦ Targets of elimination are first whistle blowers, watchdog organizations and political opponents.
◦ Means are acquiescence, propaganda, subversion, corruption, deception and violence.
They spread criminality in capability, radius, degree, bestiality and gains up to fascism.
◦ Propaganda leads to polarization of public opinions and justification of illegitimate means.
It washes out the questioning, probing, critical approach to political-social action.
◦ Subversion mentally disrespects the gist of an objective standard.
It washes the standard out until it has lost its reality constructing function.
◦ Corruption physically violates an objective standard.
It instrumentalizes social structures and processes until they are left standing as a façade.
◦ Deception and violence, the roads to increasing gain, lead to image, system and order fascism.
Psychic and physical power are the most vile and devastating of all lower instincts.
Driven, blindly driven, unscrupulously driven, they do not rest until self-destruction.
6d7) Vulnerabilities exist especially to pseudo-mental products like myths, idolatry, superstitions, illu-
sions, construals, ideologies and system theories.
6d8) Excesses are eg pure or ’mono-cultural’ forms of social coinage with large imbalances in heterogen-
ity of thought, work and life.
6d9) Inhibiting factors of social marks are eg oppression, conflict and civil war.
III B 7 Scientific-technological development
In continuation of construction, expansion by scientific, artistic, contemplative research and development
of man made objects in advancement of human potential is a universal human activity.
It is initiated by individual and collective spiritual, mental, psychological, emotional, biological and bio-
mechanical forces in combinations.
As organized political-social forces they have generated all man made phenomena.
Large scale, institutionalized programs of research, development and applications of objects of all clas-
ses and across all layers of reality out of human and natural resources are supported mainly by
◦ Common, population wide expanding socio-spiritual-mental-psychic-physical needs, desires and de-
mands in a civilization of man designed and made products.
◦ Social forces with their schools of political-scientific-technological-commercial-social thought.
◦ Social-legal frameworks and human-administrative-material infrastructures.
◦ Aspirational R&D spearheads towards construction of future living environments.
Practical applications generate developmental marks as population wide technological aptness, as com-
mon mass effective use of tools and as progressing collective causal chains of actions.
Goal definition is by philosophy of research with its merits, political-social-scientific-technical-industrial-
commercial character, prospects, scope, means, applications and public interactions.
Basic goal is universal treatment of all objects in their objective, complete, balanced description of ob-
jects; natural, human, social and spiritual dimensions; levels of reality, abstraction and complexity; appli-
cations, results and consequences; situation, context, environment in space-time; aspects, contributed
by all peo-ple in public discussions.
Scaled up goal is to fuse envisioned human spiritual, mental and material hopes.
Advanced is the human radius of action with its frontiers of the thinkable, calculable, do- and usable over
ages into the micro-scale of nano-technologies and macro-scale of the solar system.
◦ Advanced are human boundaries of spiritual, mental and physical capabilities and their class bounda-
ries of sound theology, reason and maturity by pooling population wide, generations running, orga-
nized, institutionalized, systematic research efforts.
◦◦ Spiritual limits
The distance God - man is infinite, God being the creator of heaven and the earth.
Theological teachings are advanced by spiritual forces through faith and sound theology.
◦◦ Mental limits
Man is born in the common state of non-knowledge and over centuries acquired knowledge consti-
tutes only a scrap versus the dimensions of the universe. His free phantasy exceeds factual knowl-
edge by leagues, but rarely approaches common fundamentals or far out extremes.
Mental states are improved by social forces through maturity, research and development.
◦◦ Natural limits
Limits of action are set by possibilities of existing-known energy, matter, space and time.
Man can utilize and alter conditions, but he cannot create out of his own new physical forces.
Natural conditions are improved by social forces through reason, research and development.
◦◦ Class boundaries
Class boundaries are standards of compatibility: sound theology towards God, reason towards na-
ture, maturity towards man and ethics towards society.
◦ Expansion activities are able to further, sustain and altogether destroy man, society and nature.
Philosophically degraded by lower instincts they grow into gross misdevelopments.
◦ Stepwise collective ethical-technical efforts can gain man’s self-preservation in cosmic dimensions.
7a1) Development builds on human constitution and construction, especially on physiological and frame-
work preconditions and basic universal standards.
7a2) It proceeds in tiny steps from questioning to realization via eg literature and field search, goal defini-
tion, research, forecast, project design, feasibility study, decision, pooling of human-material-financial
resources, test runs, provision of goods and services, marketing and feedback evaluation.
7a3) It proceeds on the way from simple to complex, specific to general and concrete to abstract.
7a4) It spreads from a country to a continent, the globe, the planetary system and the galaxy.
7a5) It continuously supersedes present states of art by enlargements of comprehension and application.
7a6) It expands its concepts with superseding, generalizing and unifying principles.
7a7) It abstains from absolute definitions of truths.
7a8) It promotes the spirit of man and the integrity of nature.
7a9) It continuously reapplies all single steps, starting from questioning and cognition in series.
7b1) The first step of development focuses in-depth on the desired object.
Expanded, refined, corrected and spread are the canon of present knowledge, know-how and skills.
7b2) Management of knowledge serves eg collection, storage and presentation of objects' properties,
forces, relations and functions, their standards, applications, sources, check, classification, impact histo-
ry and safeguards against inhibiting factors.
7b3) Today, all political-social endeavors are build on R&D investments for competitive performance.
Innovation introduces new designs. It generates along the product road map from conception to sale suc-
cessively improved versions and speculative, visionary objects, which did not exist before on the market.
It initiates periodic, large scale, far reaching political-religious-mental-social-cultural-administrative adap-
tations, re-orientations, incisions and upheavals.
7c1) It increases the number and variety of existing objects and accelerates their turnover.
7c2) It increases the number, differentiates and specializes the professional fields.
7c3) Modernization promotes present state of the art technologies like mechanization, automatization
and digitalization for gains in efficiency, productivity, competitiveness and growth.
7c4) Rationalization cuts out waste. It eliminates non-required means of goal attainment.
c4,1) It sets up a tight chain of cause – effect relations to achieve a lean operation.
c4,2) Its criteria are mostly maximization of profits and minimization of costs.
c4,3) Administratively it eg sets priorities, standards and bench marks, specializes and reorganizes.
c4,4) Technologically it eg improves materials and processes, innovates and modernizes.
7c5) Urbanization sets up basic, practical administrative-technical infrastructures and services in centric
and poly-centric urban areas to massively expand and attract neighbouring, rural populations.
It offers new opportunities, wealth, higher living standards and mobilizes emotional-social-cultural forces.
7c6) Industrialization with mass production in organized step by step processes promotes a scientific-in-
dustrial-technological-commercial civilization, which in turn inspires innovative applications.
7c7) Sciensfication promotes generations running, institutionalized scientific research and development,
as a mental resource and a driving production factor aside of capital, labor and natural resources.
7c8) Globalization promotes worldwide exchange of ideas, people, goods, services, money for economic
growth by liberalized trade and fiscal policies, efficient transportation and communication, but favouring
mostly global players in an interlinked and -dependent, strained competitive, inequitable market.
7c9) Cosmization carries technological applications of the professional fields throughout space.
Quality adds performance and merit. It improves a technical benchmark for an application and designs
an objective benefit into a mental-human-natural product by applying sound theology, reason, maturity
and ethics within basic universal standards.
A human drive is transformed into an acceptable product without harm to man or environment.
7e) Institutional efforts
Institutional efforts can promote research, development and applications. Private, public non-government
and government institutions assist, sponsor, champion, channel home and foreign efforts in all fields of
life at any stage according to their philosophy of research and political-social objectives.
7e1) Means are eg political, legal, financial, commercial, technical, scientific and manpower support.
7e2) Scope of sponsorship ranges from a single project, professional field, application, human and natu-
ral resource, social structure and process, population group to the natural environment.
7e3) Scale can broaden into a social enterprise to expand human boundaries.
7f) Co-determining factors
Co-determining factors are spiritual, social and natural environmental states, changes and boundaries.
7f1) They result as social heritage out of past and present trend setting social forces and constitute co-
determining, long term in- and external variables of individual and collective lives.
7f2) They comprise as social character eg vitality, dynamics, mobility, mentality and their interactions.
7f3) They can promote, tolerate and inhibit the material-human-spiritual infrastructure.
7f4) They are treated in daily trading as a non-contractual framework conditions.
7f5) Changes are caused by eg new emerging motivations and trends in long term goal attainment.
Avant-gardes exist in all professional fields and as new social movements.
Changes are measured qualitatively and quantitatively by leading, coincident and lagging indicators.
7f6) Boundaries are man’s limits of spiritual, mental and physical capabilities.
Interactions of expansive efforts start in early stages as points of awareness, then broaden in most cases
rapidly into interwoven global relations.
Large scale developmental interactions take place in all expanding professional fields eg
◦ In the sciences by eg information exchange, interdisciplinary research and transfer of technologies.
◦ In commerce by eg global operations to take advantage of differences in production costs.
◦ In politics eg by military agreements to set up a security network.
◦ In culture eg by international festivals and foreign exchange programs.
7g1) State ranges from concurrence to co-existence, dynamic balance, competition to conflict.
7g2) Scope ranges from past-present, local-global, unrelated-related to public-under cover.
7g3) Effects range from convergence, synergism, revival to distancing, takeover to displacement.
An extended radius of action and possibilities invites equally irresponsible political-social policies to ex-
ploit basic existential humanitarian and environmental conditions.
7h1) The technological civilization as a complex, multi-interdependent techno-city is vulnerable to mani-
pulation of its longer, faster, intertwined chains of actions and to miniscule, far off, hard to detect, incalcu-
lable uncertainties, risks, dangers.
7h2) Man’s inner freedoms are vulnerable to minute traces of poisonous agents and synthesized toxins
for genetical, physiological, psychological, mental, ethical manipulation, impairment and elimination.
Traces of natural and synthesized bacteria, viruses and toxins, not visible to the eye, can be lethal.
7h3) Flora and fauna are vulnerable to eradication of its biotopes.
7i) Developmental marks
Developmental marks evolve out of the predominant scientific-commercial forces, striving mainly for eg
profit, wealth, growth, progress, power and an image of a rational, functional technological civilization.
They have become the main driving forces in shaping the present day society, eclipsing the traditional
schools of social thought.
Futurology describes the past and present state of political, military, economic, scientific, technological
and social affairs to predict future short to long term developments over the spectrum of possible, pro-
bable, desirable, alternate and consequential scenarios.
◦ It is employed by all private and public, regional and global players to lay out strategical and tactical
road maps for future growth in their fields of activity.
◦ Qualitative and quantitative linear, exponential and chaotic modelling of future states employs extrapo-
lation by counting and projection, added by educated guess, trend, speculation, utopia and fiction.
◦ As indicators serve also present world views, the art epoch and studies in history.
◦ Overambitious efforts strive to calculate all man-man-nature interactions to map and direct the course
of historic developments despite the large number of future imponderabilities.
7i2) Information society
The information society is based on the digital economy, a new scientific-technological development in
line with the agricultural and industrial revolutions to permanently coin the political-social character.
A digital representation encodes every object of any class with its properties in virtual reality.
A generated unit of information of any volume-variety as an immaterial product can be electronically
stored-copied in data banks, processed-designed in multi media, transmitted-shared-classified globally
in public-private linked networks to be used-applied on stationary-mobile devices 24 h in real time.
The global data base has become an every day integrate part of all elements, structures and processes
of political-social life, eg it
◦ has enhanced communication, standing at the center of all social relations and activities.
◦ has increased mental-physical capacities in eg productivity, versatility, flexibility, distance and speed.
◦ has accelerated the growth of information, knowledge and management of knowledge exponentially.
◦ has given in-external dynamic impulses to education, research, development and applications.
◦ has become an independent production factor aside from capital, labor and natural resources.
◦ has become an independent resource of information power with societal antagonisms.
◦ is utilized as a representative tool by all political-social forces and their institutions for line organization
and in media campaigns, build up of image, public discussions, problem and conflict solving.
◦ is applied transnationally in all professional fields from politics, the military, the sciences, economy,
administrative services to entertainment with rationalization, automatization and AI autonomization.
Data security is hardly ensured against cyber-criminality like unfair competition, theft of intellectual prop-
erty, violations of privacy and personality rights, individual profiling, social programming and propaganda.
7i3) Affluent society
The affluent society is based on new scientific-technological-organizational developments in the mass
production of material goods and services to make them available to the vast majority of the population.
◦ The supply side designs, produces and distributes cost efficiently, proficiently, flexible, in large variety,
in large output and in short product cycles consumer goods from life’s necessities like food, clothing,
shelter, energy, transportation to extravagant luxuries like limousines.
◦ The demand side consumes and satisfies its needs according to its income in free preferences, accu-
mulates wealth and lets its lifestyle be stimulated by artificial demands of mass media glamour.
◦ Poverty by GDP/capita is reduces with economic growth, but the same inequitable distribution ratio.
◦ Rising living standards and life expectancies advance the image of a common welfare society.
◦ Self-service, indifference, waste and destruction are not embedded in the true product costs.
◦ Solely commercialized production and consumption cause gross pollution, depletion and destruction of
natural resources. They cannot be projected on the entire world population, - they exceed the planet’s
resources, are not sustainable and will lead inevitably to planetary catastrophes.
7i4) Environmental advocacy
Environmental advocacy engages itself on behalf of the rights of mature.
Man as part of nature stands at their intersection and acts as advocate for the rights of man and as rep-
resentative advocate for the rights of nature and safeguards himself against adverse natural forces and
equally safeguards nature against adverse human forces.
The physical, chemical, geological, biological, zoological, genetic forces and their ensuing formations,
forms of life and interactions constitute a value in its own right and worth of protection.
First championed by lone voices and grassroot movements for ethical, protective, medical, philanthropic,
social, existential and innovative concerns, they have grown into a critical, corrective, visionary and
broad based, global movement against man’s self-centered interests of production, consumption and ag-
gressive technologies for the exploitation of natural resources as they expanded over millenniums.
Main intent is the conservation of the planetary habitable zone.
Scaled up intent for man and nature is to survive as one community of life in cosmic dimensions.
Environmental advocacy pursues eg
◦ Collection of information about the phenomena of nature by the earth and life sciences.
◦ Collection of information about human interventions by the social and natural sciences.
◦ Specification of the causes, mechanisms and damages of man made environmental incisions.
◦ Specification of the political-economic-social forces of opposition against protective measures.
◦ Specification and formulation of the laws, markers and protective requirements.
◦ Information of the press, the public and competent government institutions.
◦ Set up advocacy organizations on a global scale to plead for their causes and programs.
◦ Lobbying for the local to international adaptation and enforcement of the codices of nature.
◦ Recommendation of short and long term investments for environmental conservation measures.
◦ Initiation of research and development in eco-friendly technologies and applications.
◦ Monitoring of the effectiveness of standards, programs and measures.
7i5) Vulnerabilities of development exist especially to pseudo-mental products like mastery over nature
and progress without limits.
7i5) Scientific-technological misdevelopments
Misdevelopments evolve mostly out of lower instinct, criminal inclinations, aggrandizements to drive
manically ahead with any project that is conceptually, organizationally, technologically doable to shape
man, society and nature, - but, - starting out as greedy excesses they are belittled, as exploitation of the
environment are acquiesced by illusions, as misuses of power are tabooed by public opinion control and
as pseudo-developments are enforced by image fascism, - all in the long run to fall back on themselves.
Scientific-technological mastery of nature fosters illusions of human capabilities and conveniences.
Quickly claimed is progress without a limit with
◦ Increases in knowledge and the human radius of action.
◦ Increases in life expectancies and social-economic possibilities.
◦ Increases in wellbeing, welfare, wealth and power.
◦ Comprehensive problem solving by technological expertise.
◦ Image of an easy going and successful lifestyle.
The public social reality and its rooms of political-social movement fade into scenery designed fa-
cades, polished formalisms, stupor, distrust, paranoia and hypocrisy towards objective values.
Gone is the informed citizen, who thinks independently over the full spectrum of his mind.
Excesses occur through eg run-aways like speculation bubbles, large commercial imbalances like
monopoles, large financial imbalances like polarization of wealth, framework break downs like black
markets and short cuts like ideas for cash.
i6,3) Exploitation of the environment
The natural environment has become over the last centuries increasingly vulnerable to mass effective,
non-sustainable, often irreparable man made incisions, changes, substitutions, degradations, destruc-
tions and elimination.
Threatened is the earth’s biosphere with its atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.
◦ Polluted are water, land, and air with changes of weather patterns and the global climate.
◦ Burned up are renewable natural resources beyond their ability of regeneration.
◦ Depleted are non-renewable natural resources without sufficient frugality or rehabilitation.
◦ Reduced and eliminated are biotopes and biodiversity with entire common and rare species.
◦ Wasted are products without being eg consumed, preserved, repaired or recycled.
◦ Contaminated are product lines with toxic production residues and materials.
◦ Poisoned are food chains from land and sea to the final consumer.
i6,4) Misuses or power
Scientific-technological means of exploitation of human and natural resources have generated in-
creased knowledge, income, wealth and leverage to manipulate social fabrics.
R&D&Apps have been turned into a pioneering battlefield for political-social control, predominance
and gain. Employed are mostly ‘soft’, clandestine means under the perversity label of ‘security’ out of
militarily protected command centers with global telecommunication and surveillance systems to
◦ Control public opinion by eg manipulation of content, context, style and image of public media.
◦ Collect population wide individual profiles from all daily activities.
◦ Operate hit teams for targeted poisoning with B-C-G-R (bio-chemical-genetic-radiative) toxins.
◦ Channel individual behavior and program political-social structures and processes.
‘Security’ is tabooed, pseudo rationalized, ideologized and instrumentalized as a tool of power.
The predominant, mass effective political-social motivations and convictions of the times have fallen
victim to power, the lowest and most devastating archaic notion.
Weaponizing of modern technologies is to hit progressively easier, faster, severer, more precise, be
more effectively shielded and guided than foregone ones and to exhaust human-material, scientific-
technological capabilities in space, air, at sea, land from single to large scale, non-lethal to lethal, in-
tercepting to retaliating tools and in cyberspace from data scanning to misinforming to infrastructure
◦ B-C-G-R-N weapons
Aside from research and development of conventional weapons, developed are B-C-G-R-N (biologi-
cal, chemical, genetic, radiation, nano) compact weapon architectures as the 4th generation after
spears, guns, rockets and are now armed with toxins like contaminants, bio-chemical-genetic
agents, electrical current, electro-magnetic-thermal-acoustic radiation and neurologically coded mis-
◦ Out of life sciences developed weapons always lead to inexpensive, perfidious weapons of mass
destruction, corrupting as totalitarian tools in first line human living environments, where it cannot be
perceived by the senses in the very small, very distant and difficult to detect.
◦ Geneva Conventions
The civilized world, customary international law and the Geneva Conventions (especially the Biologi-
cal Weapons Convention (UN Geneva 1972) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (UN Geneva
1992)) outlaw the development, production, stockpiling of B and C weapons as a means of warfare
and call for their disarmament.
◦ Arms race
The arms race between the global political blocks, having started with the Cold War, continues today
in weapon development for a credible defence with overkill stockpiles of A-B-C-G-R-N weapons. It
covers the political, military, intelligence, scientific, technological, commercial and social profession-
al fields to instrumentalize them in geo-political contests for power. Under the superpowers’ shields
conflicts of global positioning and deradation of political-social fabrics endure in relentless efforts.
◦ Dirty war
A global, clandestine, dirty B-C-R-G-N war wages between government, private, independent de-
fence leagues' security services of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Worlds and their populations. They operate
global systems of labor camps for electro-magnetic-bio-chem-genetic programming of individual-
social-psychological-physiological profiles and to eliminate human roots of dissenting, opposing and
Pseudo developments like pseudo medical experiments spring out of the drive for political-military-in-
Threatened is a 'human hand directed, accelerated evolution' by electro-magnetic-mechanical-bio-
chemical-genetic means to transform man into a programmable cyborg - cloned chimera with special
augmented capabilities according to orders.
They are misuses of civilian professions and depraved weaponizing directed against God given institu-
tions, which are protected in the civilized world by basic human rights and can not be realized against
public resistance, except with open and clandestine power tools of image fascism.
Man’s position in nature is existential dependency on a small, scarcely endowed planet in a 250 million
years from now heating up solar system as physiological basis and room of life, which he has to pre-
serve and not to counteract technological developments to survive in cosmic dimensions.
7i7) Inhibiting factors
Inhibiting factors of developmental marks are eg
i7,1) Lack of will, knowledge, resources and corrective action to sap any starting point.
i7,2) Social-cultural misdevelopments like overpopulation to dilute efforts.
i7,3) Social-commercial-political misdevelopments, falling back on themselves.
i7,4) Counterforces of deception and violence.
Results of expressions by communication and action comprise all longer lasting man made objects.
Their design, generation and manifestation are collected in the canon of knowledge.
They can be classified as mental, mental-human and mental-human-natural products.
They can sub-classified as essential, common and luxurious.
7j1) Mental products
Mental products as results of neuro-physiological data processing are internal, conscious, intentional,
visualized constructions. They are abstract units with identity, name and defined content of properties,
independent of realization or utilization. They give an intellectual contribution to the canon of knowledge.
They are a conceptual design of most products. They can be
j1,1) Spiritual mental products like an ethical standard.
Example is the Nicene creed, Athanasius (AD 287-373) fought for his life long.
j1,2) World view mental products like a way of thought.
Example is humanism, a questioning and educating view of man, being endowed with human dignity
and the potentials for freedom, individuality and virtues in real life.
j1,3) Personal mental products like an individual opinion.
j1,4) Mental processing products like a design of expression.
j1,5) Professional mental products like a law of nature.
Example is the Archimedes' principle, he (BC 287-212) discovered while playing with soap in a bath.
Today, development of a mental product often requires a large scale R&D project.
j1,6) Auxiliary mental products assisting another product like an operating instruction.
j1,7) Evaluation is by eg truth, merit, sincerity, completeness and consistency.
7j2) Mental-human products
Mental-human products as results of molding human resources are external, conscious, intentional, rea-
lized construction. They are concrete units with identity, name, defined content of properties and func-
tion, independent of utilization. They give an administrative contribution in service to man and environ-
ment. They are organized large scale to handle mass applications. They can be
j2,1) Institutionalized administrative units like a law court.
Example is public trial by state authorities in cases of capital offense to break through cycles of savage
blood revenge, as expounded by eg Aeschylus (BC 525-456) in his 'Eumenides'.
j2,2) Associative administrative units like a scientific community.
j2,3) Auxiliary administrative units like a called in expert panel.
j2,4) Evaluation is by eg merit, function, performance and transparency.
7j3) Mental-human-natural products
Mental-human-natural products as results of molding natural resources of physical raw materials, flora
and fauna are man made material objects. They are concrete units with identity, name, a list of defined
properties and uses. They give a technical contribution in service to man and environment.
Their finished state is described by eg appearance, function, performance, quality, practicability, effi-
ciency, specialization, differentiation, communication and energy consumption.
In daily population wide production and consumption, they add up to mass effects. They can be
j3,1) Modified natural environment like a dam against the tides.
j3,2) Cultivated natural flora and fauna products like a fruit orchard.
j3,3) Products from non-living raw materials like machinery.
j3,4) Semi-finished goods, eg an automotive part is further processed into a complete product, a car.
j3,5) Evaluation is by eg industrial, technical and practical standards like function, performance, quali-
ty, service, cost, recognition, acceptance and natural-social concerns.
III B 8 Inhibiting factors
Inhibiting factors introduce man made barriers by causes of error and intent.
8a) Errors are deficiencies in intellect.
They are caused by eg thoughtlessness, non-knowledge, mistake, but mostly by irrationalities like
8a1) Primitive aggrandizements like fate, fame, glory, beauty. happiness and sex appeal.
8a2) Self-exultations like man to be the crown of creation, - a self-deception that has been rectified by
cosmological insults: man and earth are not the center of the universe, he does not spring out of a single
act of divine creation, he is not driven alone by reason and he is vulnerable to minute traces of toxins.
8a3) Caricatures, when reduced to oversimplification, black-white painting and prejudice.
8a4) Pseudo-mental products, lacking sound theology, reason or maturity like myth, idol, superstition, il-
lusion, dogmatism, ideology, construal, social programming and secret policy goal.
8a5) Pseudo-logical reasoning like tautology, pleonasm, circular reasoning and regress ad infinitum.
8a6) They spread by eg culture, teaching, ways of thought and political-social propaganda.
8b) Intentional barriers are defects in drives, mentality, intellectuality and spirituality, originating out of
criminal inclinations, hate of man and archaic notions of prestige, power, possessions and pleasure.
They strive to bleed dry with kraken suction cups any object in reach and tangible.
They openly, tyrannically set up arbitrary rules or secretly, hypocritically corrupt equitable law.
They pervert knowledge and with it its natural-human-spiritual realities.
They defile human dignity and universal human, social, natural and spiritual values.
8b1) Targets of gain are mostly self-image, language, frame works and physical objects.
8b2) Targets of loss are mostly the natural environment, another person's property, social-professional
surroundings and he himself.
8b3) Targets of elimination are first whistle blowers, watchdog organizations and political opponents.
8b4) Means are acquiescence, subversion, corruption, deception and violence.
b4,1) Acquiescence yields to political-economic-social pressure as way of least resistance.
b4,2) Subversion mentally disrespects the gist of an objective standard.
b4,3) Corruption physically violates an objective standard.
b4,4) Deception manipulates perceptions, comprehension, intentions, conceptions, decisions, individual
actions and social behavior patterns by
◦ Motivation control, eg stirring up of lower fears and desires leads to eg brutality.
◦ Justification control, eg propaganda for a political system leads to eg ideology.
◦ Knowledge control, eg privileged information leads to eg system control.
◦ Cyber control, eg fake news and fiction ware lead to eg biased hyper reality.
◦ Public opinion control, eg manipulation of content, context, style and image by eg appeasement,
diffusion, deflection, distortion, misinformation, omission, elimination, perversion, ridicule, enter-
tainment, glorification, irrationality leads large scale to social reality control.
b4,5) Violence impairs a spiritual, natural, man made object or human being by degrading abuse,
misuse by a civilian tool designed to amend and attack by a military tool designed to do damage.
A society with a multitude of social-administrative-technical interrelations is extremely vulnerable to
'soft' channels of private and public coercion, curtailing inner and outer freedoms of movement.
◦ Damage of a man made object is by eg tempering, misapplication and destruction.
◦ Infringement of a political-social-professional framework is by eg harassment, disenfranchisement,
oppression, exploitation, subjugation, strangulation, enslavement and expulsion.
◦ Degrading abuses are eg insult, surveillance, defamation and demonization.
◦ Impairment can be eg physical injury, disease, altered growth and differentiation of a physiological
trait and change in the level of a genetic-physiological capacity.
◦ Transformation can be into a cyborg - chimera with programmable augmented capabilities.
◦ Replacement can be by a programmable robotized android.
◦ Elimination can be by severe cripplement and murder.
b5,1) Deception and violence can escalate in place to the planetary system, in time to an area, in severi-
ty to bestiality, in organization to a totalitarian system and in technology to industrial murder.
b5,2) Lower instincts drive them to the outmost, prestige leading to image fascism, power to system
fascism, possessions to order fascism, pleasure to hedonism and their combination to global hege-
III B 9 Summary
Society is a man made object, existing out of the components man, population and man - man relations.
It is constructed by man, social forces, growth processes, groups, interrelations, goals, means, adminis-
trative organizations, technical devices, resources, environments and supervision.
Essential for a durable society are a physiological base, freedom, public discussion, problem solving,
conflict solving, defence and ethics.
A service society entails priorities, responsibilities, tasks, means, results, supervision and development.
9a) Social forces
A society generates cause setting forces and capabilities to mold human, natural and spiritual objects.
9a1) Global players are today larger political parties, government political-military-administrative elites,
private spiritual-legal-medical-scientific-business-press elites and interests-money associations.
9a2) Their major intentions strive for egocentric advantages by means of hegemonic policies with global
power networks over people, data, goods, services, money and territory.
9a3) Their major conception of given national, global and cosmic dimensions concentrates on the possibil-
ities for exploitation of resources by means of knowledge and wealth generating professional fields.
Recipients mostly cooperate in the power networks. Without emancipation of a mind of their own, they
follow pseudo-happiness in stupor to comment, adapt and profiteer or criticize, diffuse and get run over.
9c1) Man and society do not practice cognition to see their intentions, conceptions, convictions and ex-
pressions with their positive and negative consequences.
They cannot overcome inhibiting factors by non-violent means of enlightenment to convince and correct.
They cannot project themselves into the future with a real prospect in cosmic dimensions.
9c2) Continuing or escalating are massive hunger, epidemics, inequities of wealth, overpopulation, envi-
ronmental destruction, human rights violations, exploitation, subjugation, open and hidden combat.
9c3) Military ABC overkill build-up threatens eradication of life on earth ten or more times over.
9c4) A global, clandestine, dirty B-C-R-G-N war wages between government, private, independent de-
fence leagues' security services of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Worlds and their populations. They operate global
systems of labor camps for electro-magnetic-bio-chem-genetic programming of social-psychological-
physiological profiles to transform man into a programmable cyborg - cloned chimera and to eliminate
human roots of dissenting, opposing and moral voices.
9d) Public Accusations
The major church and secular political-social leaders are by universal standards accused of image fas-
cism and in hundreds of millions of cases a year worldwide of:
The predominant decision making elites, driven by archaic notions, void of a human base, cannot fill any
present or visionary political, social, cultural, technical enterprise with real substance in the spirit of man.
Power, the most devastating archaic notion, narrow, vile, hateful, persistent, scheming, instrumentalizes
social values, structures, processes, resources, rooms of spiritual, mental and physical movement.
'For all the nations have drunk the maddening wine of her adulteries.' (Rev 18, 3 TNIV).
After colonialism, two world wars and genocide, today with modern technologies of mass destruction, the
sum of multiple, escalating gross corruptions in excess of boundaries will lead inevitably to planetary ca-
tastrophes, collapse of political-social systems and self-extinction of mankind.
42 ~ PDF ~ ~ Home ~
|8d1) Environmental violations || ||by eg pollution, eradication, depletion, climatic shift|
|8d2) Deception || ||by eg misinformation, mock discussion, opinion control|
|8d3) Exploitation || ||by eg unfair trade conditions|
|8d4) Subjugation || ||by eg torture, enslavement, sterilization, child misuse, rape|
|8d5) Degrading || ||by eg surveillance, stalking, profile control|
|8d6) Physical injury || ||by eg gassing, radiation, poisoning|
|8d7) Murder || ||by eg physical injury, terrorism, civil strife and war|